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Brianna's Living Enviornment Labs 12-13

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Brianna Fachin

on 23 April 2013

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Transcript of Brianna's Living Enviornment Labs 12-13

Lab1: Modeling Levels Of Organization in the Living Environment 1.Purpose 3.Procedures 4.Observation 5.Conclusion Biosphere Biome Ecoystem Community Population Organism To show levels of organization in the environment from small to big. 2.Materials

- -Materials: Different size paper cubes, scissors, crayons, tape. Each cube was decorated to represent a level of organization. The cubes were then placed inside each other to show the organization of the levels. Brianna Fachin
Lab Portfolio 2012-2013 The purpose of this lab was to model the levels of organization within the environment. Cubes were made to show the different levels and placed inside each other to show how the levels are organized. The smallest cube(population)was placed within the next largest cube (community),which was placed within the ecosystem cube,then the biome cube,and then within the largest cube which was the biosphere. Lab 2: Food Chains and Webs



1. Purpose: To show which populations interact together in a community and to use arrows to show energy flow.

2.Materials and procedures:
-Materials: Population cards,arrows
-Procedures:
A. Students have to locate other students that have a population that would live in the same community as them.
B.Use arrows to show the energy flow within that community.
C.students made inferences about how the removal of one population would effect the others.

3.Observations:
Kelp Sea Urchin Otter Autotroph Heterotroph Heterotroph Bacteria (de-composer) Producer Consumer Consumer 4. Conclusion:
The purpose of this lab was to show how populations interact in a community and to show the energy flow using arrows. Populations were organized into a food chain using arrows and then labeled based on their nutritional role (autotroph or heterotroph). This lab showed that all food chains start with a producer and that the arrows point away from the producer. Also when one population is removed all the other populations in that community are affected. 1. Purpose: To explore the diversity of deciduous trees.
2.Materials: Leaf samples, Dichotomous Key.
3.Procedures:
1.Collect four different leaf samples from trees around school.
2.Use dichotomous key to identify each tree species.
3.Research what types of populations use that tree for habitat or for food.
4.Construct a food chain using that tree as the producer.
5.Observations: Lab 3: Using Dichotomous keys to identify Deciduous trees 1. Betula Birch
2. Aesculus Buckeye
3.Carya Pecan
4.Sweet gum
5.Redbud
6.Magnolia
7.Locus Sweet Gum Tent Caterpillar Blue Jay Magnolia Deer Mountain Lion 6.Conclusion Bacteria (De-composer) Bacteria (De-composer) The purpose of this lab was to determine what trees deciduous trees live in our area. We also learned how to decipher what tree each leaf was from using a dichotomous key. We used different characteristics including shape of the tree leaves and how the leafs were aligned on the branches. Then we researched the trees and what eats them. All populations work together in a community and would not survive without each other. Lab 4: Bottleneck gene lab 1.Purpose: To stimulate survival of the fittest within the survivng population of black footed ferrets. 2.Materials:
Bottles with beads in them
genetic characteristics key
environmental scenario cut outs. 3.Procedure:
a.Shake bottle and roll out 9 beads.
b.answer questions 1-3 on the blue sheet
c.Select five environmental scenario cards as the environment changes (scenario cards) determine if your population is able to survive.
d.Answer question 4 on your blue sheet. 4.Observations: My ferret population survived. The colors that i rolled were green, pink, yellow,red,dark blue and orange. The colors i didn't roll were black, purple and white. I had the rite characteristics to survive. 5. Conclusion: This lab shows that to survive in the environment you need to have the right characteristics. In this lab my ferret population survived because it had a lot of variation in the characteristics i rolled out five out of 8 different color beads. This gave me the characteristics necessary for me to survive the scenarios i faced. 1.Purpose: To stimulate survival of the fittest within the surviving population of Giraffe. Lab 5: Natural selection in Giraffe 2.Materials:
Beads
Bottles
Bead color key
Characteristics key
Environmental scenario cards 3.Procedure:
a.Pour out 6-7 beads to represent the traits that your new population possess.
b. Pick three random scenario cards
c.Determine if your population will be able to survive the scenarios. 4.Observations: Dark Blue-Long Neck
Light Blue-Good Hearing
Yellow-Long Legs
Purple-long toungue
Tan-Healthy Reproductive system
White-Run fast
Red-Strong Heart
Green-Good Eye Sight
Pink-Good immune system
Black-Camouflage 5.Conclusion: This lab shows that to survive in the environment you need to have the right characteristics. In this lab my giraffe population survived because I had a lot of variation in the characteristics i rolled out seven out of 10 different color beads. This gave me the characteristics necessary for me to survive the scenarios my population faced. 1. Purpose: The purpose of this lab was to simulate natural selection in Darwins Finches.


2.Materials:
large seeds
small seeds
tables to represent Galapagos Islands
Tools to represent different size and shape beak


3. Procedures:

a. Students were given their “tool” to represent which type of beak they had.
b. Students completed several rounds of feeding on islands with different size seeds.
c. Students recorded how many seeds the ate after each round
4. Observations:
Round 1: Feeding with no competition







5. Conclusion: Lab 6: Beaks Of Finches (state lab) Trial # Seeds Collected Trial #1 Trial #2 Trial #3 Trial #4 Average 17 21 27 11 9 Partner #1 Partner #2 1.My "beak" was to big to eat the small seeds with and grabbing only one seed at a time like a bird: made it very difficult to eat the seeds.
2.Three traits other than beak characteristics that could contribute to the ability of a finch other than beak are good eyesight,large wingspan and being fast.
3.Good eyesight, pointy beaks and strong wings will improve survival chances.
4.Some "beak" types did better with bigger seeds because they had larger beaks.
5.Class activity
6.No those successful in round one were not as successful in round two because there was more competition and less food.
7.There were fewer survivors at the end of round three because there was more birds and less food.
8.No the types of beaks that were successful on the original island were not successful on the new island because they had to migrate to where they could feed.
9.This activity stimulates each of the concepts listed below as they are in the process of natural selection :
Variation:They had different beaks.
Competition:Birds in search for food .
Struggle for survival:As the food source decreases, there was more struggle.
Adaptation:Smaller beaks were better adapted.
Environment:Size of seeds.
Selecting agent:Size of seeds.
10.Finches with larger beaks are going to survive better because the seeds are bigger.
11.
a. Both plant and animal food is avaliable.
b. No, because they are filling in different niches in different habitats.
c. The ground finches will decrease due to competition.
12.
a.The island would have both large and small seeds to support large and small Ground Finches.
b.To test the materials provided in this lab you could have both large and small seeds available and large and small beaked birds. Lab 7: Oh Deer 1.Purpose:To stimulate how "limiting factors" limit the size of a population has a carrying capacity in order to maintain dynamic equilibrium.
2.Materials:
Students to represent deer
Students to represent resources
student to represent wolves
3.Procedures:
a.Assign 24 students to be either deer or resources.
b. Line students up on opposite walls and have them turn around so they can not see each other.
c.Have each student pick a symbol either food, water or shelter if you are a resource.If you are a deer pick what you need.
d.When your teacher says "Oh Deer!" the deer run to find the resource they need.
e.If the deer finds what it needs it goes back to the deer side with the resource they needed.If the deer does not find what it needs they both stay on the resource side.
f.Repeat 9 times and record data.

4.Observations




5.Conclusion:
The purpose of this lab was to stimulate how big a population would get and the factors that limit is. The limiting factors of the Deer population was the resources and wolves. The carrying capacity was around 12-15 that is why there was never more than 15 years. The dynamic equilibrium went up and down with the wolf population. Lab 8: Ecological Succession http://www.benettonplay.com/toys/flipbookdeluxe/player.php?id=419058 1.Purpose: The purpose of the lab was was to show ecological succession in a forest. 2.Materials:
Computer
notebook
pencil or pen 3.Procedures:
a.Take notes on ecological succession
b.Go to http://www.benettonplay.com/toys/flipbookdeluxe/guest.php
c.Create a flip book on the website demonstrating ecological succession.
d.When finished making the flipbook save it and copy the URL given at the bottom of the page.
e.Paste the URL to the observations part of your prezi. 4.Observation: 5.Conclusion: The purpose of this lab was to show the process of ecological succession through the flip book. The flip book showed that the pioneer organisms are the lichens that turn the rock into sandy soil allowing succession to take place.Grass starts to grow in the soil and is later replaced by bushes and then trees. This shows how forests and other areas come back after a natural disaster. Lab 9: Energy Pipeline 1. Purpose: To explore how energy is transferred through a food chain and lost to heat at each level. 2.Materials:
Heatcup
calories (chips)
sun person
four groups to represnt four trophic levels 3.Procedures:
a.Students were grouped into feeding levels.
b.Calories were given to plankton; Some were burned off (placed in heat cup)
c.Each level transferred calories to the next.
d.Record data 4.Observations:
Phytoplankton Krill Trout Shark Plankton Krill Trout Shark 5.Conclusion: This lab shows how the energy was transferred through the food chain.Every time energy is transferred through the food pyramid some of the energy is lost and turns into heat.We found this out by using chips to represent calories.The calories that were burned were placed in a cup and the unused calories were passed to the next level in the food chain.When the energy reached the last level there was not a lot of calories left. The organisms burn off energy as it moves through the food chain leaving less energy for the next level. Heat Heat 5000 1000 200 10 Lab 10: Hazardous links 1.Purpose: To simulate how pollution gets transferred through a food chain. 2.Materials:
Chips (Calories)
Red chips (Pesticide)
Four Trophic levels 3.Procedures:
a.Arrange students into 4 trophic levels
b.Give each phytoplankton 10 chips.
c.Have each phytoplankton metabolize (use) 2 calories and passed remaining calories to the next level.
d.Repeat until calories reach the top of the fod chain (Osprey)
e.Record data (# Of chips , Red chips)
Note: Red chips represent pesticides and can not be metabolized. 4.Observations: Phytoplankton Zoo Plankton Minnow Osprey population # of chips # of red chips % of red chips Phytoplankton Zoo plankton Minnow Osprey 90 37 41% 72 58 48 37 37 37 51% 64% 77% 5.Conclusion: The purpose of this lab was to simulate how toxins were passed through a food chain. The osprey had the most red chips (toxins) because they are at the top of the food chin and eat the organisms that have already consumed toxins. We learned this by passing chips through the trophic levels and mixing in some red chips representing toxins. We passed the red chips though the food chain and saw the osprey received the most toxins because of bio accumulation. This shows that the top of the food chain gets the most pesticide because the amount of pesticide increases. Lab 11: Energy Relay 1. Purpose: To simulate the interdependence between heterotrophs and autotrophs as shown in photosynthesis and respiration. 2.Materials:
Sun mat
chloroplast mat
mitochondria mat
Cut outs of ATP, Glucose, Oxygen, Water, Carbon dioxide 3. Procedures:
1.All students started at the sun mat.
2. First student carried Co2+Water 4. Observations heat
bucket H2O,CO2,ATP Glucose,Oxygen photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Co2 & H2O 5.Conclusion: The purpose of this lab was to simulate the interdependence between auto and heterotrophs in photosynthesis and respiration. This can be shown by preforming an energy relay. The energy relay represents photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Both processes start at the sun Photosynthesis then begins with Carbon dioxide and water this goes to the chloroplast which produces glucose and oxygen. Now cellular respiration takes place it uses water, carbon dioxide and ATP. This now turns to heat and the rest goes to the chloroplast allowing photosynthesis to take place again. This lab shows how Photosynthesis and cellular respiration take place. Lab 12: Focus Vitamin Water 1.Purpose: Does Focus vitamin water help students focus? 2. Hypothesis: If students drink focus vitamin water they will not focus any better. 3. Materials:
Cups
Crystal Light
Focus vitamin water
Focus test 4. Experimental Design:
Control group- People who drank crystal light.
Experimental group- People who drank focus vitamin water.
Constants- amount of water, time, focus test
Independant variable: People who drank crystal light.
Dependant variable: The people that drank focus vitamin water. 5. Observations: 6.Observations: The purpose of this lab was to determine if focus vitamin water helped students focus. We came to the conclusion that focus vitamin water does not help students focus.We had half of the class drink fruit punch and half drink focus vitamin water. Neither of the groups new what they were drinking. After they drank the unknown substances every student was tested and we saw the results were very similar. The control group that had fruit punch touched 13 and the experimental had 9. This proves my hypothesis was correct focus vitamin water does not help students focus. Lab 13: Effect of temperature on rate of Photosynthesis 1.Problem: Will warm temperature increase the rate of photosynthesis? 2.Hypothesis: Warm temperature will make photosynthesis. 3.Materials:
Beaker/Plastic cup
2 pieces of elodia
straw (exhale o2)
cold location
warm location 4.Procedure:
1. Fill two cups with BTB
2. Blown into both cups through straw until it turns yellow.
3.Put the same amount of Elodia in each cup and cover the cups with plants in it with syran wrap.
4. Place one cup in sunlight and one light in dark.
5. Observe and record data until both cups turn back to blue. 5.Experimental Design:
control group: clear plastic
experimental group: red plastic wrap
independent: colored lights
dependent: time it takes for cup to turn back to blue
constants: amount of chemical, same plant, same size of plant, same amount of CO2, same shade of yellow. Conclusion:The purpose of this lab was to see if a plant would preform photosynthesis inside or out side . The results proved my hypothesis was correct.Normally the plant would not do as well outside in the cold as it would in the warm inside but the sun was shinning on the cups and it warmed both cups inside and out so they both successfully preformed photosynthesis turning carbon dioxide back oxygen and turning the yellow back to blue. Many factors effect the experiment and my temperatures were really to close to conduct an accurate experiment. Observations: Day Experimental cup Control group 0
1
2 yellow/greenish
dark blue
darker blue yellow/greenish
blue
dark blue lab 14: the affect of temperature on cellular respiration on yeast purpose: to determine the optimum temperature for yeast to perform cellular respiration. hypothesis: 22'c will be optimum for yeast cells to perform cellular respiration. or if you leave the yeast in 22'c which id room temperature then it will perform cellular respiration.
materials: 3 test tubes, graduated cylinder, yeast solution(10cm), 3.54g of sucrose, 3 balloons, and measuring tape.
experiment design:
experimental group; heat and fridge temperature
control group: room temp
independent: temperature
dependent: size of the balloon
constants: amount of yeast, amount of water, and amount of sugar.
procedures:
1) get 3 test tubes
2) fill them with yeast and water mixed
3) then add a packet of sugar to each tube
4) after put the same size balloon on each tube
5) put them in the experimental place. test tubes circumference of the balloon. 1) room
22'C 5cm
2) heat
30'C 5cm
3) cold
2'C 5cm conclusion: The purpose of this lab was to find the maximum temperature for yeast to perform cellular respiration. The results showed that of the different temperatures for the yeast they all affected the cellular respiration the same. We measured the circumference of the balloon and they were all equal to 5cm. The results didn't support my hypothesis because all of the circumference were the same. The results were how they were because many the constants weren't kept constant.This showed that the temperature has barely any effect on cellular respiration on yeast. But normally the yeast in the warm temperature would preform respiration first. observations:
purpose:

to observe plant cells and organelles to learn how to use a microscope.

materials:

compound microscope, elodea leaf, glass sidle, cover slip, stain, medicine dropper.

observations;




low power(100x) high power (400x)

procedures;
1) prepare a wet mount slide
- garbing a glass slide and a leaf of a elodea plant, and placing the leaf on the slide
- drop about 2 drops of stain with the medince dropper on the leaf and quickly place the cover slide on.
- wipe the sides, and the wet mount is complete.
2) place we mount slide on the stage, focus it on neutral then move to high an if needed focus more
3) collect data and move to high power. after that you are finished with the lab.

conclusion:
The purpose of this lab was to observe plant cells and organelles. We observed cell wall, chloroplast, cytoplasm and the vacuole. In high power we saw more details because it has an increase in magnification but less cell because there was smaller field of view. We learned how to use a microscope and the different fields of view of magnification. lab 15: Observing plant cells and organelles
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