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Copy of Growth and Development in Preschool Children

Clinical 1I02

Ruth Lucas

on 23 January 2017

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Transcript of Copy of Growth and Development in Preschool Children

Physical Development
It is the growth and development of the body’s muscles, bones, energy systems, and the nervous system (Temertzoglou & Challen, 2003, 247).
A preschool child is a child between the stages of an infant, and childhood.
In end stages of toddler, a child has remarkable growth.
Muscular development allows for children to perform basic tasks such as walking by age 2 and running by age 3
The body begins to stabilize itself
A relationship between bone and tissue growth and development occurs (Temertzoglou & Challen, 2003, 247).
The major development of this relationship will occur at the very end of the preschool age, around 5 years old

Cognitive, Emotional
and Physical
Cognitive Development
It is an individuals ability to interpret and process information; emotional development or the development of a persons self-concept, or awareness of ones self (Temertzoglou & Challen, 2003, 247)
Children in Preschool are entering Piaget’s second stage of cognitive development: the Pre-operational Stage
A child demonstrates intelligence through the use of symbols. They also develop considerable language development, as well as significant growth in memory and imagination (Temertzoglou & Challen, 2003, 254)
Knows what ordinary things are for; for example, telephone, brush, spoon
Points to get the attention of others
Shows interest in a doll or stuffed animal by pretending to feed
Points to one body part
Scribbles on his own
Can follow 1-step verbal commands without any gestures; for example, sits when you say “sit down”
Imitation of behaviors
Domestic mimicry
Concept of time

Wait a minute or now
Parallel play
Holding and letting go
Fill and dump
Tactile play
"Teddy's being brave so you can be brave too
Emotional Development

The development of expression and control of feelings
(Sue, 2010, 47).
Ages 12 to 36 months
“Autonomy” vs. “shame and doubt”
Ages 12 to 36 months
Rapid mood swings common
“Negativism” – No!, “Me do”
“The terrible 2s”
“Ritualization” provides sense of comfort
Learning to delay gratification
Intense period of exploration

Social Development
The development of relationships with
family, friends, and others in the “outside world”
Social and Emotional Development
Constantly working together to develop.
Toddlers develop skills of independence
Tyrannical, volatile behaviors
Self-assertion is a major theme
"Me do"
Strong-willed behavior
Skills include feeding and playing
Dressing and undressing self
a differentiation of self from mother
and from significant others
Carol Aubrey & Karen Ward (2013) Early years practitioners’ views on early personal, social and emotional development. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 18 (4), 435-445, DOI: 10.1080/13632752.2013.807541
Kim, J. (2013). Discover Psychology. Toronto, ON: Nelson Education LTD
Martin, Sue. (2010). Take A Look: Observation and Portfolio Assessment in Early Childhood. 5th ed. Toronto, ON: Pearson Education Canada, Pg. 47

Pongracis, Jaqueline. (2000). Is it food allergy? Contemporary Pediatrics, 17 (12), 101.

Temertzoglou, Ted & Challen, Paul. (2003). Exercise science: An introduction to health and physical education. Toronto, ON: Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.

Ulloa, M. L., Evans, I. M., & Parkes, F. (2010). Teaching to Care: Emotional Interactions between Preschool Children and their Teachers. NZ Research in ECE Journal, 13, 33-42 http://www.tawamontessori.co.nz/files/Teaching-to-Care.pdf

Preschool Development
Preschool Cognitive Development
Intuitive thought—ages 4 to 7
Changes way of
they incorporate and take in information
Assimilation taking the information
Incorporating it to what they previously knew
Accommodation by creating an entire new schema
Self-assertion is a major theme
Changing Characteristics
Mastery in Toddlers and Preschoolers...
...in every day life:
Why Burns in Early Childhood?
"able to reach heights by climbing, stretching, standing on toes, and using objects as a ladder"
like to pull on things
likes to explore holes and openings (curious)
can open drawers and doors
not aware of any sources of potential heat/fire (not obviously hot like a flame)
like to play with mechanical objects
supervision, especially around hot surfaces and fires
encourage parents to teach basic safety rules (ex. don't attempt to use stove without assistance)
teach children what things in the house can get hot and that hot = burn (ex. oven, space heaters, hot water pipes, fireplace doors, BBQ, toaster, etc.)
turn pot handles toward the back of the stove
do not let tablecloth hang within child's reach
always check bath temperature
set temperature of hot water to max 49ºC
keep hot liquids (ex. tea/coffee) out of reach
apply sunscreen (min. SPF 15) and wear a hat when planning to be in the sun for a while
cover electrical outlets with plastic caps
do not let cords from appliances hang within child's reach
do not let child play with electrical appliance, wires, or lighters
Important milestone in development
Age 18 months to 24 months, but not the same in everybody
When they're heading to school (3yrs old) should be potty trained (kidshealth.org, 2011)
Should check for health risks or concerns if after 3yrs (kidshealth.org, 2011)
Signs that indicate that they are ready (kidshealth.org, 2011)
You find the diaper is dry even after 2 hours
They verbally say they want to start wearing underpants or they need to use the bathroom
Fine motor skills to remove clothing
Curiosity about adults' or sibling's toilet habits

Visual Cues - teddy on potty
Piaget - delayed imitation , you can show the how to sit
Put poop and place in the potty (kidshealth.org, 2011)
Since Potty training is new Accommodation
Starting talking about 'potty' or 'pee/poo' (kidshealth.org, 2011)
Slowly let them recognize everything by explicitly telling them that their diaper is wet or ask them is they went (kidshealth.org, 2011)
Don't punish them if there is an accident or they wet the bed
Toddlers and Preschoolers
Figure 9. "Do The Skin Prick Test Work?" By, Baby Center, 2011 Retrieved from http://community.babycenter.com/post/a26557555/does_the_skin_prick_test_hurt
References (cont.)

(Potter, Perry, Stockert, & Hall, 2013, p. 342)
(Raising Children Network, 2013)
(Potter, Perry, Stockert, & Hall, 2013, p. 804)
(Potter, Perry, Stockert, & Hall, 2013, p. 342)
(Potter, Perry, Stockert, & Hall, 2013, p. 342)
(Allen & Marotz, 2010, p. 121), (Potter, Perry, Stockert, & Hall, 2013, p. 342)
Allen, K. E., & Marotz, L. R. (2010). Developmental Profiles: Pre-

birth through twelve, 6th edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Bertrand, J., Bernhard, J., Blaxall, J., Burning Fields, J., Gordon,

M., Goulet, M., . . . Zimznyi, L. (2007, January). Early Learning for

Every Child Today: A framework for Ontario early childhood

settings. Retrieved from Ontario Ministry of Education: http://


Hohmann, M., Weikart, D. P., & Epstein, A. S. (2008). Educating

Young Children, 3rd edition. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press.

Jarvis, C. (2009). Physical Examination & Health Assessment, 1st

Canadian edition. Toronto, ON: Elsevier Canada.

KidsHealth. (2011, October). Communication and Your 4- to 5-

Year-Old. Retrieved from KidsHealth: http://kidshealth.org/


Miller, D. F. (2010). Positive Child Guidance. Belmont, CA:


Potter, P. A., Perry, A. G., Stockert, P. A., & Hall, A. M. (2013).

Canadian Fundamentals of Nursing, 5th edition. Toronto, ON:

Elsevier Canada.

Raising Children Network. (2010, May 26). Negotiating with

children. Retrieved from Raising Children Network: http://




Raising Children Network. (2010, May 13). Talking and listening to

your preschooler. Retrieved from Raising Children Network: http://



Raising Children Network. (2011, December 12). Preschooler

connecting and communicating: in a nutshell. Retrieved from

Raising Children Network: http://raisingchildren.net.au/articles/


Raising Children Network. (2012, August 29). How you

communicate with preschoolers. Retrieved from Raising Children

Network: http://raisingchildren.net.au/articles/


Raising Children Network. (2013, May 24). Burns: prevention and

first aid. Retrieved from Raising Children Network: http://

Importance of Allergies in Preschool Children
Allergies are a big problem and show up during the preschool phase

Preschool children are in school, and are exposed to all different types of food brought in by others

Kids are still trying a variety of new foods, having recently switched to solid foods

Figure 10. Adapted from "Toilet Teaching your Child from Kidshealth, by Nemours, 2011. http://kidshealth.org/parent/emotions/behavior/toilet_teaching.html#
Figure 2.
Dressing with DCD
[photograph]. Retrieved November 14, 2013, from: http://canchild.ca/elearning/dcd_workshop/dressing.html
(Allen & Marotz, 2010, p.21; Potter, Perry, Stockert, & Hall, 2013, p. 342)
Figure 13.
[photograph]. Rettrieved November 14, 10, 2013, from http://cirrie.buffalo.edu/encyclopedia/en/article/119/
Figure 11. [untitled photograph of girl trying to see in pot]. Retrieved November 10, 2013, from http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/En/HealthAZ/SafetyandtheEnvironment/IndoorSafety/Pages/BurnsHouseholdSafetyandPrevention.aspx
Figure 12. Alamy (2013). [untitled photograph of boy pulling down pot off stove]. Retrieved November 10, 2013, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/children_shealth/10045695/Children-with-older-mothers-less-likely-to-suffer-burns-in-the-home.html
Says several single words
Says and shakes head “no”
Points to show someone what he wants
Points to things or pictures when they are named
Knows names of familiar people and body parts
Says sentences with 2 to 4 words
Follows simple instructions
Repeats words overheard in conversation
Points to things in a book
Personal Development
Social Development
Development of Sexuality
Exploration of genitalia is common
Gender roles understood by toddler
Playing “house”
Sexual identity
Sexual beliefs
Sex typing
Gender behaviors
Sexual exploration of children
Self-assertion is a major theme
Independent in dressing, eating, toileting by ages 4 to 5
Desire to please
Internalized values
More secure with new sibling arrival at this age
Separation-individuation process
Effects of prolonged separation (such as hospitalization)
Associative play
Imaginary playmates
Mutual play with parents
Ingestion of Injurious Agents
Cosmetics and personal care products
Cleaning products - edema
Corrosives-bleach, drain cleaner, batteries
Foreign bodies or toys
(gasoline) -aspiration
Medications – Tylenol

Principles of Emergency Treatment
1) Assessment

2) Poison control center

3) Gastric decontamination
Gastric lavage within the hour
Induce vomiting
Absorb toxin by activated charcoal

4) Prevention

Lead Poisoning
Most common by peeling lead-based paint
Microparticles of lead contaminate bare soil
Can be inhaled or ingested
Relationship between lead and anemia
Long-term effects—behavioral and cognitive
Environmental Hazards Cont.
Sources of Lead Exposure
Paint chips and dust from homes built before 1978

Contaminated soil

Occupations and hobbies involving lead exposure

Food prepared in improperly fired pottery

Drinking water from lead pipes, lead-lined tanks or tea pots soldered with lead

Imported or antique toys or furniture
Lead Poisoning Diagnosis
Rarely symptomatic
Venous blood sample of 10mcg/dl
Screening for lead poisoning at age 1, 2 and 5 years
Chelation therapy with:
Calcium disodium edetate (EDTA)- IV or IM
British antilewisite- IM (along w/ EDTA
Succimer (DMSA)- Oral
Adequate hydration- kidneys
90% of occur in the home

Infants and toddlers at-risk due to their developmental level & exploratory behavior

Lack awareness of danger

Taste of sense is not discriminating at this age therefore they will ingest unpalatable substances

Principles of Emergency Treatment
If child is unconscious, not breathing or have seizures call 911
Otherwise call Poison control center
Call first
initiating any interventions
How long?
How much?
Injestion of Injurous Agents Cont.
Aspirin (Acetylsalicytic acid)
Supplemental Iron/ MVI
whole bowel irrigation (WBI)
Desferrioxamine is chelating agent
Poison Help-Nationwide Number
1-800-222-1222- direct call to local poison center
Available 24/7
Can call with questions
Be prepared
Be sure caregivers and babysitters know this number
Prevention of poisonings from occurring or recurring
Parent education on prevention
Heavy Metal Poisoning
Most common is lead ingestion
Mercury toxicity (less frequently)
Physical Development
Physical Development
Gross Motor
Walk with a wide stance
Run by 18 months
Climb stairs by age 2
Jump on both feet by age 2 ½
Stand on one foot, walk on tiptoe by age 3
Improved coordination between ages 2 and 3
Fine motor development
Improved manual dexterity ages 12 to 15 months
Throw ball by age 18 months
Scribbles by 15 months
Copy a circle by age 3

Effect of temperament on adjustment in group situations

Aggression—behavior to hurt person or destroy property
Professional help for parenting
Spiritual Development:

Parental influences
Development of conscience r/t spiritual development
Moral development
Physical growth

Rate slows and stabilizes during preschool years
Physical proportions change
Slender but sturdy
Graceful, agile
Posture erect
Males and females similar in size and proportion
By 36 months
Walking, running, climbing, jumping
By age 4 years
Skips and hops on one foot
Catches ball
By age 5 years
Skips on alternate feet, jumps rope, learns to skate and swim

Preschool Language
Ages 4 to 5—four- and five-word sentences
Carries on a conversation using 2 to 3 sentences
Uses active listening:
Follows instructions with 2 or 3 steps
Can name most familiar things
Understands words like “in,” “on,” and “under”
Says first name, age, and sex
Names a friend
Says words like “I,” “me,” “we,” and “you”
Plurals (cars, dogs, cats)
Talks well enough for strangers can understand

Confront their own feelings (self-awareness) and cope with emotions
Helps them feel respected and comforted

Development of Body Image:
Increasing awareness of self and others
Poorly defined body boundaries
Poor understanding of internal anatomy
Toddler Language

Always want to know 'why?'
Provide and explanation
Explain in simple terms

Cognitive Development
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