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Metaphor

Looking at what I understand so far
by

Jane Grist

on 4 November 2012

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Transcript of Metaphor

More than poetic Metaphor Polysemy Words can mean more than one thing Affordances language is a flexible tool to express our ideas Catergorisation As we learn more we hide one idea within another Example: table Example: lump you lump lump it together get rid of the lumps describe, insult, create humour, express affection, or devastate Our ideas are not stored independently cornflower petal flowers plant beauty blueness romance serenity Prototype theory:
Rosch suggests that particular features allow us to include concepts into named catergories of which a prototype can be readily accessed. e.g. blue Objectivist view:
Thinking is manipulation of abstract symbols sorted into sets, can be developed and manipulated through logical reasoning.
Analogous to a computer. Priori: Chomsky suggests that a universal framework of language into which specific languages elements are arranged. Experiencal view: Lakoff suggests that language relates embodied experience so the novel attaches to the known through analogy. Fuzzy logic :
Zadeh suggests that boundaries between sets and sytems are fluid
See also: Dubois and Prade Metoynym allows us to use one property or component to refer to wider totality How do we store all this information and associations? Information Shells Digital Analogue The context, in which information is received, affects our understanding Example: The roses were pink not yellow flowers of particular species reporting of past event pretty not red feminine Note-some would see gender difference acting here and quote, 'Men are from Mars and women are from Venus', but also the reflects difference between right brained left brain individuals, it is dependent on context etc etc crass thoughtful guilty girlie no romance Note the disproportionate impact of the emotive, the assumption of bunch and gift gratitude expressed Kittay acknowledges the ideas of Dretske nesting-names describe only the surface of our understanding and digital analogue distinction My understanding is clearly built on the work of others. In this presentation I have added some 'leaves' that acknowledge the ideas of these thinkers as well as suggesting lines of further enquiry.
A full bibliography has not been given as this is not an academic exercise - just a search for the big picture. Effort has been made to use only images in the public domain and free of copyright restrictions. Indicate a need to read analogous meanings Give permission to widen communicative impact Functions of live metaphors: Dead metaphors are so familiar that ordinarily they are not perceived as metaphors at all. When dead metaphors are revived the paradigm is shifted and level of communication changed metaphors cluster There is no such thing as 'clean language' any more than it is possible to cite all the sources of our words or ideas(Bakhtin) Exploring alternative metaphors changes the assumptions we make and allows for new connections and possibilities Give mechanism for recalling thought process Allow differentiation of understanding Reference mental image library Facilitate humour Act as substitutes for the gist Novel juxtapositions allow creativity Limit parameters of inference Engages attention of receivers as individuals Encourage use of gestalt (mental leaps) Provide readily accessible shortcuts to lazy thinking Widen the experience of reading Metaphor-the mental equivalent to a soundbite Bakhtim thought the endless possibilities of words were often missed Prezi under construction Breakdown tension and barriers to communication Contact: jane@tothemill.co.uk multimodal - lexis, image, intertextuality implicit contract to suspend disbelief playing with language -puns -'Have you ever met a four before?' Dancing word syndrome distraction seeing the literal language processing difficulties dyslexia homonyms and homophones are not only instances that may catch us out. listening response similies and other tropes Coleridge used the expression 'to suspend disbelief'. Setting aside obvious falsehood allows us to share Koestler explained gestalt our instinct to complete the circle or picture Moses wrote of the tower of Babel showing that confusion in language has a long history. Early man named the creatures and things and has done ever since
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