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Early Humans

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Jason Jiang

on 2 February 2015

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Transcript of Early Humans

Early Humans Over a period of several million years, the human tribe, known as the Hominini, evolved in this way. Members of the Hominini are more successful than their ancestor by their bigger brains, upright walking, and different teeth. The first groups to show these features are called Australopithecus, and were present from four to one million years ago. In Africa about 10 million years ago, the climate was slowly changing. The early apes started to spend more time on the ground. They searched for plants and searched the remains of animals, and this encouraged cooperation, communication, and increased intelligence. Some of them also learned to stand upright, making them able them to look over tall grass, and leaving their hands free for other task. Man or ape? Although we do not know exactly what the earliest people ate, prehistoric people clearly had a very close relationship with the animals and plants around them. Though thousand of years of experience they came to know which animals to hunt, which plants they could eat, and which plants could be used to treat illnesses. Much of this knowledge had been now lost. Prehistoric food The prehistoric diet was much more different than our modern diet. It even included many plants that we think of as weeds. After people started to grow corn, nutritious wild food were still eaten. These food could only be preserved for a short time by drying or salting, so the seasons had a strong effect on what was eaten. Another different from our diet was that there were few sweeteners, except for honey. Creator Jason Jiang The first tool making human, Homo habilis, made simple pebble tools from various types or rock.In Europe, people found that flint was the most suitable material and flint tools half a million years old have been found. Flint working Flint's most useful property is that regular flakes come off when it is chipped. The angle and size of the flakes can be controlled by careful chipping, and so a variety of sizes and shapes can be made. Like glass, flint takes a sharp edge which can be reshaped by further flaking when it becomes blunt. Flint is widespread and available in large quantities. The earliest tools were made by removing flakes from a core of flint until the required shape was left. Most hand axes were made in this way. Later on the flakes themselves were used to make finer tools and weapons, like knives and arrowheads. Between about 1.6 million and 200,000 years ago lived he Homo erectus people. They had bigger brains and bodies than the habilines, and some were probably as tall and as heavy as ourselves. They were also much more advanced than the habilines they had more better tools and knew how to use fire. Moving northward Fire provided a focus for the family group, kept people warm, and could be used for cooking. It kept predators away and helped in hunting animals could be driven into traps by using fire. These skills, and the increased brain power that goes with them, making these people able to live a much wider range of environment than their ancestor. They were probably the first people to range beyond Africa into Europe and Asia, where most of their fossils have in fact been found. In these new environment, the harshest of which would have been Ice age Europe, Homo erectus slowly adapted to local conditions. Over a million years, they evolved differently in different parts of the world but fossil still share enough characteristics to show they are clearly our ancestors. The coming of fire The great step forward was made when they found out how to make fire for themselves by rubbing two sticks together to create a spark. The earliest evidence of fireside from about a quarter of a of a million years ago. Because no fire making equipment survives from this remote period, archaeologist have recent so sites around the world who probably made fire as their brothers and sisters did long long long ago. Fire was one of the most important discoveries ever made by the ancient people. It not only making them able to keep warm when the temperature was much cooler than it is today, it was also useful in keeping animal away, in roasting meat, and in hardening the tip of the wooden spear. Before they learned to make fire, people probably used accidental fire caused by lightning. About 75,000 years ago people on the coast of South Africa were catching seals and penguins and about 25,000 years ago the first Australia were hunting now extinct giant kangaroos. Throughout the prehistoric period, it is likely that most of he hunter gatherers food came from plants, nuts, fruits, and shellfish, because these could be gathered with little effort. Their remain s dont survive as well as bones, however, so they are not often found on archaeological sites. But the discovery of flint spearheads and arrowhead suggest that early people had evolved quit sophisticated methods of hunting animal. Hunting and gathering The earliest works of art were created around 30,000 years ago, during the last Ice Age. There early work of art take two main forms. The most famous are he paintings of animals with covered the walls an roof of caves , such as those of Lascaux in France and Altamira in Spain. The other less well known type consists of small sculptures and relief carvings of animals and female figures. These have also been forum in caves but they occur in larger numbers in open air sites in Eastern Europe. The first artist

The people of the ice age were probably the first to wear clothes. They would almost certainly have needed more than their hair to keep them warm in the cold conditions, and may agave been used as for shelter as well. The first woolen textiles were probably made in the Near East, where sheep were first tamed, in he late Stone Age. Spinning and weaving slowly become more popular until, by the Iron Age, quite sophisticated Looms were used to weave fine fabrics. Dyes were also used from the Stone Age onward, and these, together with body decoration allowed ancient people to present a bright appearance. Clothing and fabrics Tilling the soil Humanity's greatest ever advancement, farming first began in the near east around 10,000 BC and spread throughout Europe during the next six thousand years. It also developed in America, he Far East, and other areas of the world. The ability to grow plant and raise animals meant that people could control their source of food rather than rely only on hunting and gathering. Farming made people able to stay in one place all year round and to feed a greater number of people. As a result the population increased and towns began to develop. Ancient writing The first writing slowly developed in Mesopotamia and was used to record trading deals. At first, picture of objects being exchanged were simply drawn on tokens, later symbols were used to represent ideas. By about 3500
BC, the actual sound of speech were written down on clay tablets using a stylus. This type of script is known as cuneiform The idea of writing spread around the Old World, and about 1000 BC the Phoenicians had invented an alphabet. Writing was also involved in other places. In China it first appears carved on bones to record military affairs and the deeds of of kings. In Central America, the Maya used hieroglyphs, most of which have only recently been translated to make astronomical records and to list royal dynasties. In all these ancient societies writing was restricted to the upper class because it was a source of knowledge and power.

For ninety nine percent of their time on earth, humans have survived by hunting animals and gathering plants for food. During the Ice Age,people in Europe were probably hunting big animals such as the woolly mammoth. Thanks for Watching Fruit was an important food for early Mediterranean people. As well as being a rich source of nutrition, it can be dried and stored. Woodlands yielded an large supply of wild nut berries, which are excellent source of nutrition and easily be stored. Hazelnuts seem to have been stored for the winter, and fruit could be preserved in the form of jam. In the Near East, wheat grains were first collected wild, and then cultivated. Juniper berries made a tasty spice. Spices Beside salt, which was used more to preserves food then to flavor it, a different of seasoning and spices have a long history. Some, such as coriander, were also prized because they are good for the digestive system. From the woods Fruit 1 shaping the core The first step in flint working was to select a piece of flint and to select a price of flint and to start trimming it to a roughly shape. 2 Removing flakes A stone hammer was used to strike a sharp blow along the edge of the rough cut flint. This removed a large chip from the underside. 3 Finishing The axe was trimmed by striking it along its edge with a bone hammer. Although Homo erectus probably started life in Africa, remains have been found in places as far away as China and Java. Fire sticks The earliest hominines might have made occasional use of natural fire caused by lightning, but Homo erectus seems to have been the first to create and use fire deliberately. A simple wooden tool like a stick and a wooden hearth would have been used to start a fire. Evidence for fire Some of the earliest evidence for human use of fire comes from a cave at Choikoutien near Beijing China. Inside, a large number of Homo erectus remains were found, dating back to 360,000 years ago. A deep layer of ash showed continued use if fire.
The spread of Homo Erectus On this model of a bow drill, the leather bow makes it easy to turn the drill fast and get enough friction to start a fire. Fire drill This simple fire drill shows the basic principle of generating heat by Turing the drill to create friction so the wood underneath begins to burn. Around the Hearth In the sort of fire makers, the tinder ignited by the fire drill was added to a harp of dry grass and small sticks. Larger pieces were added once the fire was alight. A circle of large stones helped to protect it from drafts. Bow drill Early artists used earth colors such as ochres, and pigments made from other naturally occurring minerals. Making the colors The decoration on many early pots were engraved in the surface of the clay. The potter's art Fishing tackle This harpoon would have been used for spearing fish from a sandbank at the river's edge. It dates from c.8000 BC. Arrows like this were used about 8000 years ago. The head was stuck in place with birch resin glue. Simple but deadly The bow and arrow were developed to hunt the shy forest animals from a distance. Flint Arrow In the areas of Europe, Pioneer farmers used axes to clear huge areas of area of their Fields. The first harvest Cereal crops were harvested with sickles until the coming of the combine harvester in the early part of this century. Einkorn wheat, grows wild in Turkey and Iran, where it was first cultivated. Backbreaking task Cleaning the ground Scraper When an animal skin had been cut away from the body, a scraper was used to remove fat and tissue. Flint knives These disk shaped knives were used to cut the skin from the animal's body and cut it to shape. Skin preparation These are three stages in making leather. First the hide is cleaned and hair is removed with combs next is tanned to preserve it finally it is decorated and treated, so that the leather is correct thickness and will not dry out. Chinese Characters The Chinese script is the oldest writing still in use in the world. In the Bronze Age Shang period a form was used for around 1300 BC which is still related to modern Chinese. In 221 BC the Ch'in state brought in a standard script to replace all the regional variations that developed, and this is still used today. Mayan Writing For generations, scholar were baffled by the pictorial script of the Maya. It bears no resemblance to any other known writing. The first simple bars and dots of the calendar were translated in 1880, but for nearly a hundred years it was thought that Mayan writing was used only for recording the calendar and for astronomical calculations. It was not till the 1960s that researchers found that some glyphs referred to the kings and their exploits. Now nearly 80 percent are have been decoded and a history of the Maya is being uncovered. Early Humans Created by: Jason Jiang Bye :) Mayan alphabet Cave painting of a dun horse (equine) at Lascaux Chinese characters Hope you enjoyed my presentation Enjoy the rest of your day!

Australopithecus (southern ape) lived approximately 1.2 to 4 million year ago. The study's of their fossilized skeletons suggest that they had small brains, and teeth similar to today's humans. Scientist call Australopithecus a 'prehuman hominid,' which means that they were not fully like human. Homo habilis Homo habilis lived 2 to 1.5 million years ago.
Evidence suggests that they made crude shelter from branches and used stone as tools. For this reason, archaeologist nicknamed Homo habilis 'handyman.'
The length of the bone fossils show that these people walked upright with long, dangling arms. Though not skillful hunters, these humans did eat meat if they found discarded carcasses.
Scientists consider Homo habilis the first real human. Australopithecus Homo erectus Homo erectus nicknamed "upright man" lived 1.6 to 300,000 years ago. They were as tall as we are, but they were stronger. Homo erectus looked more like us than earlier humans did. Measurements of the skull cavity suggest that Homo erectus had a bigger brain than Homo habilis, but they could not talk. Other evidence indicates that Homo erectus had learned how to make fire. Homo sapiens (Neanderthals) Sapiens means thinking. Early Homo sapiens, commonly known as Neanderthals, were starter then earlier human. Their remains and the items they left behind suggest that they made stone knives, a process that takes nine steps and about 250 blows. Neanderthals built shelters and other other structures to protect themselves. Some scientist say that these were the first people to bury their dead. Homo sapiens (Cro-Magnon) Cro-Magnon human, lived 100,000 to 10,000 years ago. Cro-Magnons are named after the place where they were first found in caves there suggests that Cro- Magnons invented a variety of tools to hunt and fish, paint, draw, sew, make music, and fight with others. They are another groups of Homo sapiens, had even bigger brains and a real capacity for complex thinking. Cro-Magnon humans made both fish hooks and needles from antlers. Homo sapiens (modern humans) Homo sapiens lived 10,000 years ago to the present. Evidence of these humans first appeared in Africa.Homo sapiens sapiens is the species to which modern-day people belong. These modern humans survived the last Ice Age and went on to populate the earth. Only with Homo sapiens did human civilization finally became possible. Sources:

http://www.wikipedia.org/,

http://earlyhumans.mrdonn.org/

http://humanorigins.si.edu/

http://anthro.palomar.edu/homo/homo_1.htm

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/The-Human-Familys-Earliest-Ancestors.html

http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/evolution/human-migration3.htm .
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