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U.S. Government: Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
Transcript of U.S. Government: Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
and the Cabinet Presidential Selection Government at Work: The Bureaucracy Job Description: Chief of State Chief Executive Chief Administrator Chief Legislator Formal qualifications for presidency The President's Term Presidential Term Limit 22nd Amendment- 1951 Presidential Succession and Vice Presidency Presidential Succession Act (1947) The Vice Presidency Two formal duties "President-in-waiting" Importance of the Office President cannot fire the Vice President "One heartbeat away from the Presidency" The President's Executive Powers Executes- enforces, administers, carries out law Executive Order- Power to issue executive orders Has the effect of law Appointing Power Appoints cabinet members, federal judges, ambassadors Senatorial Courtesy used for federal officers The Removal Power Remove appointed officers May not remove federal judges The Diplomatic Powers The Power to make Treaties Needs Senate approval with two-thirds vote Executive Agreements Similar to a treaty Does not require Senate consent The Power of Recognition Persona non grata- an unwelcome person; when an ambassador is sent home Commander in Chief Making Undeclared War Wartime Powers Use armed forces to keep peace May call in any State's militia War Powers Resolution (1973) Places close limits on the President's war-making powers Legislative Powers Power to recommend Legislation Veto Power Other Legislative Powers Special Congressional Sessions Adjourn Congress Reprieve- postponement of the execution of a sentence Pardon- legal forgiveness of a crime Commutation- Reduction of a sentence 1973- Nixon appoints Ford to succeed Agnew 1974- Ford appoints Rockefeller as VP Executive Office of the President "President's Right Arm" Umbrella Agency: Complex of several separate offices Staffed by the President's closets advisers and assistants White House- "Nerve Center" Houses key personnel and political staff Chief of Staff- directs all operations of the White House Office National Security Council Advises president in all domestic, foreign, and military matters Deals with nation's security Director of the CIA President chairs the Council Other members: VP, Secretaries of State and Defense Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff Foreign and military policy experts The Office of Management and Budget Largest and most influential unit in the Executive Office Major task: Preparation of the federal budget President submits budget to Congress in January Federal budget- Financial document, a detailed estimate of federal income and outgo during the fiscal year Oversees execution of the budget The Office of National Drug Control Policy Established in 1989 Existence shows nation's concern over drugs Two major responsibilities: Prepare an annual national drug control strategy Coordinate the efforts of the more than 50 federal agencies participating in the war on drugs Director- "nation's drug czar", appointed by President The Council of Economic Advisers Chief executive's major source of information and advice on the state of the nation's economy Three of the country's leading economists Chosen by the President with consent of the Senate Other Units in the Executive Office The Office of Policy Development The Council on Environmental Quality Nation's domestic concerns and policies Environmental policy matters, "State of the environment" report to Congress The Office of United States Trade Representative Foreign Trade The Office of Science and Technology Policy Adviser in all scientific, engineering, and other technological matters The Office of Administration General housekeeping agency; clerical help, data processing, transportation, etc. The Cabinet Cabinet- informal advisory body brought together by the President to serve his needs No mention in Constitution, not created by Congress Composed of heads of 15 executive departments and 8 cabinet level officers (including VP) 1789- 4 members All members subject to confirmation by the Senate Usually come from those who played a major role in the presidential campaign President decides how much weigh cabinet has Sometimes lean more heavily on other, unofficial advisers Pay and Benefits Salary Fringe Benefits Pension Plan "I am Vice President. In this I am nothing, but I may be everything".
-John Adams VP Vacancy- 25th Amendment (1967) Qualifications The Framers' Plan Option One Option Two Option Three Electoral System How it worked Flaws 12th Amendment Today's Electoral flaws Nominating Presidential Candidates Today Role of Conventions Presidential Primaries Caucuses http://www.2012presidentialelectionnews.com/2012-republican-primary-schedule/ At the National Convention Three main objectives: Adopt the party's platform Nominees Unify for election Changing View of Presidential Power "The Most Powerful Office in the World" Article 2- Gives Executive Powers to President Why Presidential Power has grown Military Approve/Veto Ambassadors Treaties Pardons/Reprieves Unity of the Office Past Influence National Emergencies Congress Ordinance Power Must be approved by Senate Recognizes foreign countries and their government Judicial Powers Amnesty- Group pardon Military Power Ceremonial head of the United States Symbol of all the people of the United States In charge of carrying out all the nations laws, the most powerful office in the world “Executive Power of the United States” 2.1 million federal workers, 313 million people (2012) Federal government employs millions of citizens Commander In Chief Chief spokesperson to the rest of the world Main architect of American foreign policy Chief Diplomat Party Chief 1.5 million armed forces (2010) In charge of the armed forces Main architect of public policies, shapes congressional agenda Chief Citizen Acknowledged leader of the political party that controls the executive branch “Representative of all the people” Natural-born citizen 35 years of age Must have lived in the United States for at least 14 years Not long enough to harm the country 4 Year Term- set by Founding Fathers Long enough to prove themselves Dies in office Initially, no limit on the number of terms served “Two term tradition"- since Washington 1932- FDR runs, wins 4 terms successfully No more than 10 years Limits the president to two terms
Lifetime pension- $200,000; Widows- $20,000 $400,000 annual salary $50,000 annual expense account White House Offices and staff Fleet of automobiles Yacht Air Force One, other planes and helicopters Camp David- resort hideaway in Maryland Great health care Other Cabinet Heads Speaker of the House President pro tem Secretary of State Presidential Disability The Vice President and a majority of the members of the cabinet inform Congress, in writing, that the President is so incapacitated Vice President is to become Acting President if: The President informs Congress, in writing, “that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office” President may resume powers and duties Congress has 21 days in which to decide the matter Vice president and a majority of the cabinet may challenge the President Same as President To preside over the Senate Usually pick someone who will “balance the ticket”, or improve his electoral chances Treated as an office of little real consequence Low status often blamed on the way parties nominate their candidates for the office “Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both houses of Congress” VP has been vacant 18 times, 9 times by succession to the presidency, twice by resignation, seven times by death 1967- 25th Amendment, Section 2: The people were too uninformed Electoral College Have the people elect the President by popular vote Have Congress elect the President Would give Congress too much power Second most votes was named VP Originally each elector got two votes The person with the most votes was named President Election of 1800 John Adams (Federalist) elected President, Jefferson (Anti-federalist) elected VP Separated the Electoral votes for President and VP The winner of the popular vote may not win the Presidency If the House picks the President small states have an unfair advantage The electors are not required by law to vote for their candidate Usually held in a doubtful or swing state Used to nominate presidential candidates Used since 1832 Open Primary- voters from any political party can participate An election by secret ballot in which voters choose a political party’s candidate for office in an election. Closed Primary- voters must declare which party they support and can vote only in that party’s primary States who don’t use the presidential primary system choose their delegates through caucuses A series of meetings held across a state where party members discuss the candidates and openly vote for state delegates who represent the candidate they support Those state delegates then choose delegates to attend the national convention, where they support the candidate whom they pledged to support Platform- Basic statement of the party's principles, its stands on major policy matters Each state chairperson votes, balloting continues until majority is elected Unify behind candidates elected The Federal Bureaucracy Bureaucracy- Any large, complex administrative body Organization based on three principles: Hierarchical authority Job Specialization Formal Rules Way of organizing people to do work Executive branch made up of three major groups of administrative agencies: Executive Office of the President 15 Cabinet Departments A large number of independent agencies The Name Game Department- reserved for agencies of cabinet rank Agency, Administration- any governmental body, generally a major unit Commission- regulation of business activities Cooperation, Authority- Agencies headed by a board and a manager, business-like activities Bureau, Service, Administration, Office, Branch, Division- major elements in a department The Cabinet Head of each department- Secretary Except Justice Department- Attorney General Each department made up of subunits Further divided into smaller working units Independent Agencies Agencies located outside of the departments Reasons for being created outside of departments: Don't fit well within any department Protect from influence of partisan and pressure politics Sensitive nature of their functions