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Lira Ishida

on 19 January 2016

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Transcript of China

Cultural Changes
1) The changes that the Ming implemented.
What is Neo-Confucianism?
Neo-Confucianism is one of the philosophy originated by
Zhu Xi
in 12th century China which derived from Confucianism. It continued from the Song Dynasty to Qing Dynasty (1641~1911). Neo-Confucianism is different with Confucianism because it regarded humanism and more philosophic than Confucianism. It also included some advantages of Taoism and Buddhism.
People who believed
must be loyal to their emperor, did filial duty, and respected elders but
was more academic.
Relationships with Europeans
Foreign policy and attitudes toward trade
During almost 300 years empire, the Ming Dynasty had free private trades especially with many different Asian countries and Europeans and developed industries. Their attitudes were enthusiastic and open.
Even though the Emperor Hongwu (who constructed the Ming Dynasty; ruled 1368~1398) declared restrictions on both foreign trade and merchant class, Emperor Yongle (ruled 1402~1424) encouraged voyage to other countries.
During the 1500s, all private foreign trades were banned by the isolationist policy. Due to the foreign trades became illegal, many merchants traded secretly. However, in the early 16th century, the Europeans arrived at Ming to trade with them. Because of the Europeans' visit, Ming's economic growth was highly developed.
- During the last year of Wanli Era, there was an illegal trade from New Spain and Peru. This was the economic disaster, Tokugawa regime in Japan suggested to cut off the trade between Europe. So Europe made a trade between China, but this also caused to have a higher taxes that the provinces were impossible to pay it. They made all the copper coins into silver coins, because of the silver trade the provinces had to pay lots of taxes in order to get more silver from Europe.
The Exploration
Zheng He (1371-1433) Famous Explorer

- When he was young, the influence of his father and grandfather, he became curious about the outside world.

- He grew up and suddenly, he was captured by Ming Dynasty, he was sent to Beiping (Beijin) to serve in a palace of Zhu Di, a prince od Yan. His loyalty was strong, the price suggested to make him as a personal servant/bodygurard. He was really smart and had leadership which was admired.

- By the Emperor Yangle, the first ruler of the Ming Dynasty, wanted to show China's naval power. So they suggested to go around the world and explore to show people about China. They reached South-East Asia, India, the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea and far east of Africa
The Ming Dynasty
2) The lives of women.
Changes in Philosophy
The ideas of Yangming
”Philosophy of the mind”
Philosophy of the mind

A theory of experience and a theory of method
Affected other philosophers’ ideas
Yang-Ming’s ideas brought about changes to philosophy during the Ming dynasty.
Changes in Architecture

Clay, stone and water
Started from Ming dynasty and named Ming Porcelain Art
Blanc de Chine (French)
white chinese porcelain
Women lived difficult lives
Men > Women
Women had no choice in
Websites that we used...
Good relationship with Europe
Silk Road
Trade silk and porcelain
After War...
Merchants > other class of people
-men were considered more
important than women
-women had no choice for important events in life, such as marriage
-women had to obey the rules of their husbands
-women stayed at home after their marriage
For instance...
Emperors had multiple sex partners and
often had multiple wives
Women were only considered tools for
successful reproduction
-parents chose the fate of their daughter's
marriage and daughters had no choice
-entertained men from upper classes
with their beauty

In return, they would gain wealth and
social status
Wang Yangming
(31 October 1472 – 9 January 1529)
Only chinese knew the process to make porcelain

Many europeans want porcelain
They used sea trade and Silk Road
Wang Ji (1498 - 1583)
Theory of Muzen Muaku
1) Who was the person encouraged Zheng He to voyage other countries?
2) Why many people chose Neo-Confucianism rather than Confucianism during the Ming Dynasty?
3) Do you agree to become Emperors’ concubines? Why?
Increased Tax
Little Ice Age
Laclk of resources
Big Earthquake (830,000 deaths)
- There were also lots of natural disasters:
Zhu Xi
- Rebellion
They had paid the extravagances at court and millitary expeditions to Mongol, they raised much of the taxes to certain people. It inspired the rebellions, they asked for more and more. The Manchus, the stock of the Juched tribe who lived in Manchuria, heard about the rebellion, they also suggested to raise taxes too. China and Manchus had to fight each other, they used everything of the resources of Ming and it resulted with no money in China.
Xu Xiake (1587-1641) An Explorer/Geographer

- Born in Jiangyin, his mother had encouraged him to travel

- He started to Travel through China, it took about more than 30 years to go through China. He had a document about the travel.

- He had his servant called Gu Xing, the traveled throughout the probinces with his foot. He wrote everything he had discovered about, for example the location of small gorges, and mineral beds.

- He also had measured everything which he was also became a geographer of the China.
Full transcript