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Trade Routes, Statistics and Shipping Logistics

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Hannah Ellison

on 6 March 2014

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Transcript of Trade Routes, Statistics and Shipping Logistics

General Trade Routes
Pacific routes:
including the Far East to the West coast of North and South America region; the Far East to the East coast of North America and the Caribbean; and the Far East to Southeast Asia and the South Pacific Area.

Atlantic routes:
including Western and Northern Europe to the East Coast of North America and the Caribbean Area; Europe (including the Mediterranean) via the Suez Canal to reach the Asia-Pacific region; South America East Coast via Cape of Good Hope to Asia-Pacific (mainly oil and minerals); and Europe to South America East Coast.

Indian Ocean routes:

are mainly oil shipping routes including the Persian Gulf through the Cape of Good Hope to Europe and America; the Persian Gulf via the Suez Canal to Europe and North America; and Southeast Asia and the Persian Gulf to reach the Far East.
Shipping trade routes in 1925

Main Maritime Shipping Routes
New routes - US Intermodal System
New routes - Polar Shipping Routes
The Northern Sea Route
Between East Asia and Western Europe - save 9,000 km using the Suez Canal.
The Northwest Passage
Between East Asia and Western Europe - would save 10,000 km using the Panama Canal.
The Arctic Bridge
Linking the Russian port of Murmansk or the Norwegian port of Narvik, to the Canadian port of Churchill.
The Transpolar Sea Route
Crossing the central part of the Arctic to the Strait of Bering and the Atlantic Ocean of Murmansk.
New routes - The Nicaragua Canal
The project will Start in
Dec 2014
, Compete before 2030 by HKND Group.

The Nicaragua Canal would be able to accommodate the largest ships and the
shortest passage between Asia and the U.S. East Coast

fuel savings
of larger ships on the trade routes served by the Nicaragua Canal would be substantial

Trade Routes, Statistics and Shipping Logistics
A rail transport system linking with the ports

Having a complete railway network, by many different companies

Higher cost than water/shipping transport

Lower efficiency than shipping

Panama Canal Expansion
The expansion project will be completed in

The new lock chambers will be 1,400 ft (426.72 m) long, 180 ft (54.86 m) wide, and 60 ft (18.29 m) deep.

After the expansion the
Post- Panamax vessels
would be accommodated due to the increased infrastructure of the new lock system.
Opportunities for The US Ports
Future Traffic Trends
International container traffic is expected to continue to grow spurred by
global economic growth

Shipping lines will continue to seek
economic efficiencies
through larger ship sizes.

Ports are already
to accommodate larger ships.

Ship technology
is expected to continue to evolve removing limits to continued growth of container ships.
Shipping logistics
Depending on the
size and
hull dimensions
, container vessels can be divided into the following main groups/classes:
Small Feeder <1,000 teu
Feeder 1,000-2,800 teu
Panamax 2,800-5,100 teu
Post-Panamax 5,500-10,000 teu
New Panamax 12,000-14,500 teu
ULCV >14,500 teu

Panamax and Post Panamax vessel differences
965ft (294m) in length, 106ft (32m) in width and 39.5ft (12m) in draft

Post Panamax

1200ft (366m) in length, 160ft (49m) in width and 49.9ft (15.2m) in draft

Effects on Atlantic Gateway - how to meet the above requirement
Liverpool 2 at Seaforth
- a new deep river terminal that will have the capacity to handle the new larger, post panamax container vessels. This project is expected to bring 5,000 new jobs to Merseyside and remove over 150m miles of road and rail travel

3MG (Widnes) and Parkside (St Helens
- a part of Superport priority across the Atlantic Gateway geography

Port Salford
- a £138 million project develop the UK's first tri-modal (road, rail and short-sea shipping) inland port facility and distribution park on the Barton Strategic Site adjacent to the Manchester Ship Canal. Port Salford is a critical component of the Atlantic Gateway and will provide a central North West distribution base to improve supply chains for businesses across the North West. It will enable direct barge access to the river terminal at the Port of Liverpool and reduce the environmental impact of the terminal's expansion (reduce freight transport on road).
Port Warrington
- has great opportunities to not only promote the port facilities for current and new businesses but to plan the wider area that links it to the Manchester town center(near to the Manchester Ship Canal).

Port Bridgewater
- The site provides efficient road and rail connectivity for 1.5m ft sq of warehousing.

2nd Mersey crossing
- The Mersey Gateway Project is planning to build a new six lane toll bridge over the Mersey between the towns of Runcorn and Widnes that will relieve the congested and ageing Silver Jubilee Bridge.

Strengths of Atlantic Gateway Ports

the Manchester and Liverpool city regions are two major locations with most the dense population of the UK outside of London (35 million within 150 miles).
Manchester and Liverpool City Centres' are considered as high-quality commercial locations that require vast demand of goods. This therefore promotes the shipping capacity.

It also has an efficient shipping network.

Strengths of Atlantic Gateway Ports

The importance is project to dredge the Mersey and create new port facilities for the 'new generation post-Panamax ship’ and that the government should support Liverpool’s renaissance as a major post-Panamax port in Europe
- Lord Heseltine and Sir Terry Leahy
Strengths of Atlantic Gateway Ports

Benefits of the improvements

In 2030 there are nearly
250,000 new jobs
potentially to be created

Over the period to 2030, this would directly lead to an additional
£75bn of GVA
among the local economy

One of the most competitive business locations with
low transport costs
and times, less congestion and

decreased carbon emissions

Creating a place where people want to life, visit, study, work and do business which help to improve health and
quality of life

Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, France and the United Kingdom =
top 5 EU
countries for imports and exports of containerised trade

= 20% of total EU exports and 17% of imports
experienced the greatest increase in exported TEU from 2009-2010

Top 10 exporting nations account for more than
two thirds
of total exports
Global Figures
United Kingdom
of all our goods are transferred into and out of the UK by sea transport

Half a billion tonnes of goods handled by UK ports in 2011
Atlantic Gateway
Port of Liverpool ranked
busiest by tonnage and unitised traffic handled in 2011 and 2012

2008 - Port of Liverpool and Manchester handled
39.64 million to

Port of Liverpool growth rate of
since 2002

Trade Forecasts
Major implications for transport infrastructure, technology, land utilisation and service redistribution

The Port of Liverpool and other hubs along the ship canal must continue to increase their network assets to attract new business and maintain customers to meet predicted forecasts

Future-proofing/ safeguarding is essential for these increased predictions in trade
The above EU countries all also within the top 20 exporting countries globally
is the UK's busiest

is the destination for our highest amount of

Liquid bulk dominates trading traffic at
Wide evidence suggesting the UK transfer of goods has become relatively

2020 - Mersey Ports handling
55.4 million tonnes

2030 - Growth in tonnage by

Shows the growth rate for unitsed (ro-ro) traffic
Manchester Ship Canal
= 3,000 containers

= 10,000 containers

= 15,000 containers

= upgrade to a 260 TEU container feeder vessel - The 'Coastal Deniz' will move in the region of 20,000 containers
Shipping logistics
Vessel scale of Panamax and Post Panamax

Shipping logistics
over 1 billion pounds investment including Mersey Gateway, 3MG, International Trade Center based on Wirral Waters , Liverpool 2, SuperPort etc, in order to retain it's leading position

Shipping market:

The largest west coast port cluster in UK and the major gateway that connects Manchester and the Manchester Shipping Canal to large parts of Northern England.

Key hub between UK and North America, there is about 40% of all trade pass through this route.

After the expansion of Panama Canal, Liverpool is the major port (North West, England) that can accommodate post-Panamax vessels.

Deeper and more expansive dredging projects;
build a new, larger container yard;
build a new port to accommodate the post-panamax ships;
update the intermodal system;
improving productivity and unloading the larger vessels
Atlantic Gateway Business Plan (2012) Available at: http://www.atlanticgateway.co.uk/_assets/downloads/ag-businessplan.pdf

Atlantic Gateway Organization (2012).
THE ATLANTIC AND ITS IMPORTANCE TO TRADE– The EU Atlantic Sea Basin Strategy and the Opportunities of the Atlantic Gateway.

Department for Transport (2013) UK Port Freight Statistics: October to December 2012 (Quarter 4)

Department for Transport (2012) National Policy Statement for Ports, London, The Stationary Office

HKND Group, (2010), Trends in Global Shipping Trade Demand A New Canal , http://hknd-group.com/trends-in-global-shipping-trade-demand-a-new-canal/

MAN Diesel & Turbo (2012), P
ropulsion Trend in Container Vessels
, Copenhagen, Denmark

THE GEOGRAPHY OF TRANSPORT SYSTEMS (2012), Polar Shipping Routes, Available at: http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch1en/conc1en/polarroutes.html, Accessed 20/02/2014

THE GEOGRAPHY OF TRANSPORT SYSTEMS (2012) Main Maritime Shipping Routes, Available at: http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch3en/conc3en/main_maritime_shipping_routes.html Accessed: 19/02/2014

World Shipping Council (2014) Trade Statistics, Available at: http://www.worldshipping.org/about-the-industry/global-trade/trade-statistics#Top_20_European_Union_Containerized_Exports_.Accessed: 19/02/2014

are key requirements for PEEL port customers

Container barge service has operated along the Canal since 2007

Increased demand - sparks the need to upgrade the service

1000 tonnes

of carbon
- 1.3 million km of freight taken off UK roads every year
However: we have an
import/export trade gap
- average year on year deficit growth of 3.20%

We are also experiencing a downward trend in total port traffic and units handled since 2011
Exports are on the up in the North West by
in 2013

However export markets in
East Asia
South America
need to be further explored
Yuming Chen, Hannah Ellison and Zhe Lin
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