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Science & Evolution

Learning to unlearn Misconceptions
by

Joel Hutson

on 24 August 2016

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Transcript of Science & Evolution

Science
Science as
a Process
Misconceptions
History
Science: French noun, from Latin
scientia (knowledge), from sciens,
scire (to know)
Summary
is here
Misconception: false opinion,
wrong notion, misunderstanding
is important too
is important
E.g. Experiment
for you to apply your newfound knowledge to
www.bhatt.id.au
sharetv.org
Labs, beakers &


bunsen burners
Nerds in


white lab coats,
The mad scientist
playing "God"
= Education? Latin
for (knowledge)
Pre-17th Century science







was mostly inductive. However . . .
math is firmly established as the language of
science
"If it can't be expressed mathematically, it's
not science." John Campbell
Motto of possibly the first scientific society, the Royal Society of London:
"Nullius in verba", is Latin for "Take nobody's word for it."










This phrase signifies the founders' determination to support reproducible experiments that provide evidence, and not hear-say, arm-waving, etc.
http://wlym.com/~animations/part1/copernicus-first.gif
scientific facts are facts. Right?








"There are lies, damned lies, & statistics." Mark Twain
science "proves"





things
4.bp.blogspot.com
math, math,








math, etc.
www.3isacrowd.net
doctorbulldog.wordpress.com
Peer Review
Experimental
Design
Transparency:





is it clear what you did?
Is it repeatable?




Can others imitate,
& therefore test you?
be objective as possible; corner, contain, or at least recognize your biases







This is why science thrives on racial, cultural, and religious diversity.
Statistics/Probability=average averages



Equations invented to describe
how probable your results are, &
how biased they may be
Qualitative vs.



Quantitative Data
Record measurements
and/or observations
Form an Hypothesis
Test
prediction,
then deduce another
hypothesis, or repeat
Theory =
no one's
ever offered
any evidence against
an hypothesis.
- If many different lines of evidence &
hypotheses support a concept, a
rock-solid theory
may arise, like the theory of evolution, or the theory of gravity.
Editors=





Judges
Publish or Perish=


share your results,
or you "gets no love"
Reviewers=



jury of your peers
adriandayton.com
marketingwithabook.com
undsci.berkeley.edu
scientific discoveries are changing
our world & how we





view & understand nature
www.sciencephoto.com
our technology-driven culture






is now dependent on science
mhs.marbleheadschools.org
upload.wikimedia.org
www.examiner.com
www.timeshighereducation.co.uk
www.pigeon.psy.tufts.edu
scientists are cold, unfeeling,





analytical, logical robots
dudereally.files.wordpress.com
2.bp.blogspot.com
The ugly, subjective




side of Science
Humans run on chemicals = instinct:



E.g.s
Ghrelin=hormone for hunger
Cortisol=stress
Natriuretic Peptide=urinate
Androgens=agression, sex drive
The established old guard,


politics, etc.
Social pressure




Peer Pressure
scnn99.com
Evolution: a change in allele frequencies over time in a population of organisms
Evolution
5 other mportant Points to Consider
when formulating an hypothesis
i. An hypothesis must be a
tentative explanation, or
possible cause, not an
observation.
ii. An hypothesis should be
based off of what you
already know, or have
experienced.
iii. Multiple hypotheses should be
proposed whenever possible to
avoid picking the one we want
to work, & then working towards
making that happen.
iv. An hypothesis should be
testable via experiments or
observations.
v. Hypotheses can be elminated
but not confirmed (read
proven) with absolute certainty.
The scientist must accept that
their pet hypothesis may make
false predictions, it may be falsified
& it may need modification to better
fit the data.
Measurements and/or direct observations can be recorded as data (singular is datum) using 5 human senses or any other types of radiation, vibrations, etc.

Indirect observations and/or measurements can be made the same way, or mathematically.
wwwdelivery.superstock.com
-
A woman tells you that her beach house
is haunted by a ghost that helps her
find antique objects.
-
She asks you to use your scientific know-
how to "prove" that it exists.
Please formulate an hypothesis & then
design an experiment around it.
"Your theories are the worst kind of popular tripe,
your methods are sloppy, & your conclusions are
highly questionable. You are a poor scientist,
Dr. Venkman, & you have no place in this
department, or in this University."

Dean Yager, "Ghostbusters" (1984)
I'm sure at this point you've already asked yourself several times what in the world you're going to be tested on. Here it is:
i. I expect you to be able to recognize good science from bad science, & bad science from pseudoscience. One of your four exam essay options will test you on this.
ii. I expect you to understand
that there is no set "scientific method"
that scientists everywhere must follow.

What has made science such a powerful
tool is "If . . ., then . . ." logic. This means
scientists form falsifiable hypotheses (educated guesses) & then test them with deductions (predictions).
iii. I expect you to understand the difference between objectivity & subjectivity, & how & why scientists strive to reduce the latter.
Design a methodology, i.e.,
exactly how you performed
the experiment.
Set up controls
be a careful & thorough researcher (within limits); read the literature, don't repeat someone else's mistakes
internetbrothers.com
Misconceptions
Evidence
Against

Evidence
For

Summary
Misconception #1




Humans evolved from
cavemen
Misconception #2




Humans evolved from
monkeys
www.phil.uu.nl/
whatthehealthmag.wordpress.com
www.doctortee.com
Misconception #3




Evolution is linear,
i.e., it goes from one
organism to the next,
& so on & so on...
Misconception #4




Individuals can
evolve; e.g. Mutants
www.hdwallpapers.in
Misconception #5



Theories are weak
on supporting
evidence
rlv.zcache.com
Misconception #6



Evolution has to
occur quickly
www.moviegoods.com
Misconception #7






When organisms evolve
they get bigger, faster,
smarter, etc.= "something
better"
www.impawards.com
digitalpopcorn.files.wordpress.com
Misconception #8






Evolution only occurs
through mutations caused
by nuclear radiation
There is no evidence
against evolution that
is scientific (i.e., testable,
falsifiable,
repeatable, etc.).

The only scientific debates
are about the various mechanisms
via which evolution occurs, how it
occurs, etc., not whether it occurs.
3.bp.blogspot.com
Human dna is stored & protected in cells









in 23 different types of bundles
of tightly wound dna, called chromosomes
bioap.wikispaces.com
1mkturin.files.wordpress.com
Human genes are on two long molecules
called dna, which can be unzipped down the








middle & it's bumps & peaks "read"
like cd or dvd. Your cells then make
proteins, amino acid by amino acid, from
each bump and groove that they read off
ofyour genes.
An allele is an alternative form of a gene.
For example, blue jeans are for covering your legs, but there are many alternatives
to blue jeans that have the same function,








covering your legs. Despite the variety of alleles for jeans, they are all still the same thing, jeans. Most human genes have many different alleles, like alleles for skin
color.
1.bp.blogspot.com
Allele from father's chromosome



Allele from mother's chromosome
www.treachercollins.co.uk/
Since you inherit one copy of each









chromosome from two parents (=46 total), your cells actually make proteins from genes from both of your parents.
How are alleles made? Via mutations.
Mutation=change in a gene and/or chromosome.

Think of mutations like anything that can
damage or change the bumps and dips
on the surface of a cd or dvd
wps.prenhall.com
faculty.weber.edu
upload.wikimedia.org
sterneworks.org
Electromagnetic
Radiation
Nuclear Radiation
What's an allele frequency?

An allele frequency is simply
a calculated percentage, or %
(=frequency) of an allele in a
population.
What's a population?

It's all the individuals of a species
in a group, or area.
Go ahead, figure out the allele frequency
of the red allele (out of 100%) for the gene for
flower color,






and then the allele frequency of the white
allele for the same gene for flower color in this
population of breeding flowers.
How much time is needed to
change allele frequencies in a
population?
Answer: just one generation.
Why don't allele frequencies
stay the same as each generation is born though?
Does anything besides mutations change allele frequencies?
Yes the 2 types of reproduction in
organisms can do this too. Most organisms use both kinds,
including animals like us.
Cloning: growing & copying yourself
& your dna,









then splitting into two new, but almoooossst,
identical organisms.
www.animalpicturesarchive.com
Sex = gambling with your chromosomes
& therefore your alleles.







1) Chromosomes are copied; 2) genes are randomly
mixed & matched between your mother & father's
chromosomes;
3) then the chromosome copies are shuffled
out (like cards) into sex cells (eggs and sperm).





thus, sperm & eggs only carry half of your future
cell's chromosomes, but when sperm fertilize eggs
they combine their copies.
homepages.strath.ac.uk
www.geneticalliance.org.uk
www.edupic.net
Quick Summary:
mutations change genes & make new alleles
during cloning & sex. Sex mixes & matches
genes, & therefore alleles, between your parent's
chromosomes, then these brand new mixtures of
alleles are shuffled out randomly into eggs & sperm.

This is why allele frequencies inevitably change from
generation to generation.
Let's see if we can clear up some
of our misconceptions now.
An accurate evolutionary family tree looks like a web, or bush, not a straight line
www.martinspribble.com
www.teara.govt.nz
Does this male anglerfish
look bigger, better, etc?
We can see there's a topic that's a
factor in several of these misconceptions: Time
positivityworks.files.wordpress.com
1.bp.blogspot.com
soulwornthin.files.wordpress.com
serendip.brynmawr.edu
The controversial topic of deep time in evolution
www.quaternary.stratigraphy.org.uk
Creationists cannot agree on whether the earth is around 4,000-10,000 years old
Genetic, geological, behavioral,
social, chemical, ecological, etc.

Which is the most controversial?
Religion: belief(s) used to guide one's thoughts, actions, & often purpose in life (i.e., meaning)

Belief: confidence in the truth or existence of something not immediately susceptible to rigorous testing

Faith: belief that is not based on evidence
Santa Claus Effect:




produces anxiety,
modification of
behavior
3.bp.blogspot.com
i. I expect you to be able to recognize why controversy exists
about the topic of evolution. This includes being able to describe the
common misconceptions people absorb from the media & their immediate social circles.
ii. I expect to you to understand why creationists have not succeeded in demonstrating any scientific evidence that falsifies any of the enormous (and growing) body of evidence in support of the theory of evolution. Hint; see "Science" presentation.
iii. I expect you to know the basics (as given in this presentation) of how evolution occurs, & what types of scientific evidence support it.
2 major forces that select for different alleles, & therefore
allele frequencies.
1. Sexual Selection predominates in many animals.
big13.com
2. Natural Selection
big13.com
Learning Outcomes & Objectives:

A. scientific method/process;
Learning Outcomes & Objectives:

A. scientific method/process;
Learning Outcomes & Objectives:

D. general chemistry;
E. biochemistry;
H. genetics;
I. evolution;
Learning Outcomes & Objectives:

D. general chemistry;
E. biochemistry;
H. genetics;
I. evolution;
Life as we know it?
Not for long . . .
Evolution thought provoker
Even YOU are living
evidence that evolution
occurs. Why? Because
you are NOT identical to
your parents!
by
Joel David Hutson

&
Full transcript