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Transcript of WWII
The Allies: (The big three)
The United Kingdom (England)
The United States
The Soviet Union (Russia)
World War II Notes
Types of Government
Democracy: a politcal form of government where power is derived from the people (The United States)
Communism: a sociopolitical government that aims for a
classless and stateless society with common ownership
and no private property (The Soviet Union)
Fascism: a radical form of government based on a authoritarian nationalist identity that stresses a collectivist economy (Nazi Germany)
authoritarian: a form of social organization characterized by submission to authority
nationalism: a strong identification of a group with a nation or political party, often associated with a particular ethinic group. The belief that one nation is superior to all others.
collectivism: the belief that everyone is part of a group, and the goup's needs are more importnt than the individual's.
How did WWII start?
Germany loses WWI. France, Russia, and the United Kingdom make Germany sign the Treaty of Versailles. Germany is forced to accept all the blame for the war (even though everyone had some fault)
Germany also has to pay 132 billion marks ($385 billion today) in damages. The German economy is all but destroyed.
Germany has to totally disarm and is allowed only a tiny army.
Some of Germany's territory is given to surrounding countries.
Germany has a democratic government known as Weimar for a few years, but the economy is still poor.
Adolf Hitler and his Nazi party start to gain power because they blame all of Germany's problems on Jews.
As Hitler gains total control of Germany, he establishes the Nuremburg Laws, stripping Jews of many of their rights.
Soon, Hitler begins to open concentration camps: places where Jews and other enemies were sent to do hard labor and be killed.
It is estimated that over 6 million Jewish people 2/3 of Europe's Jews were killed by the Nazis
Hitler wanted to conquer all of Europe. This was to be his empire that would last for a thousand years, based upon the superiority of the Aryan race.
Hitler's ally Japan has similar goals, but wants to control the Pacific ocean
Japan invades Korea, China, Indonesia and other parts of Southeast Asia
In Italy, they had a weak military, but Mussolini used it to take over parts of Africa
In the Soviet Union, Stalin becomes known as the "Man of Steel" because he turns the country from a poor famer nation into an industrial machine. He also has plans to take over much of Eastern Europe (maybe more)
The Nazis and the Soviets do not like each other, but they surprise everyone when they sign a non-aggression pact. They secretly agree to attack Eastern Europe together when war breaks out.
Hitler is widely viewed as the "bad guy" of WWII. However, historians estimate that 20-60 million civilians died at the hands of Stalin's regime.
In the invasion of China, Japan killed civilians and disarmed Chinese troops. They also raped 20,000-80,000 Chinese women. This became known as "The Rape of Nanking."
Hitler begins by taking over Austria. He just rolls his tanks on in and they surrender.
He then takes over what is called the Sudentenland, followed by the rest of Czechoslovakia.
The allies (at this time UK, France and Poland) declare war on Germany
Hitler invades Poland and then Stalin joins in.
Hitler invades other neighboring countries, and then France, bypassing their defenses. Nazi "Blitzkrieg" is a combination of airplane and tank attacks that is fast and deadly."The Maginot Line" is useless.
The only country left to fight
Hitler is Great Britain...
...until Hitler launches a suprise attack on Stalin and the Soviet Union.
Meanwhile, the USA is determined to stay isolated from the conflict.
But the Roosevelt adminstration does agree to send supplies to the other Allies in the Lend-Lease Act
Then Roosevelt meets with Churchill to discuss the future after the war. They agree that they do not seek enemy territory and that people deserve to be free.
This is called the Atlantic Charter. It is the beginning of the United Nations.
Then on December 7th, 1941, the Japanese launch a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. This plunges the USA into WWII.
No, they weren't really there...
but this picture is real
Churchill convinces Roosevelt to help with Europe before going after Japan.
Instead of going directly to Europe, the USA attacks the German military that is occupying northern Africa. This is Operation Torch.
Meanwhile, Germany is busy invading the Soviet Union. Hitler wants to take the industrial center city called Stalingrad. The city, besides being named after him, is important to Stalin. He orders that it be defended at all costs. The Germans kill over 1 million Soviet soldiers in the battle, and they seem to have the city completely captured.
But the Russian winter soon arrived, freezing the Nazis to death. This also allowed for Soviet reinforcements, and the battle ended in the Soviet's favor.
The USA drove the Germans out of Africa, and then they continued by invading Italy.
On June 6th, 1944, the Allies commence the invasion of occupied France at Normandy. This day is remembered as D-Day. This was a hard fought naval invasion that was successful in establishing an Allied presence in France and then Germany.
The Allies liberated Paris, and continued to adavnce into Germany.
The Battle of the Bulge was the last major German offensive against US troops. The Germans attempted to break the Allied advance, but fail.
Over the next few months, the Allies liberate the Nazi concentration camps and discover the horrors within.
In Italy, Mussolini is captured by the government and hanged.
In Germany, Hitler sees the Soviet invasion of Berlin, and commits suicide in his bunker.
V-E day (Victory in Europe) March 8, 1945
Still, the USA is fighting Japan in the Pacific, and continuing to use a strategy of island-hopping. The fiercest battle in the war is the Battle of Iwo Jima.
It is believed that the fiercely nationalist Japanese people will not give up easily, even after their mighty navy had been all but defeated.
We captured the tiny island in order to control the strategic airfields located there.
The USA had been developing a new secret weapon in New Mexico under the code name The Manhattan Project.
The result of the program was two bombs: Fat Man and Little Boy
August 6, 1945: The first atomic bomb is dropped on Hiroshima
Three days later the USA dropped the second atomic bomb on Nagasaki
90,000-160,000 people killed
60,000-80,000 people killed
The USA bluffs Japan, telling them they have more atomic bombs and demands immidiate unconditional surrender. Japan agrees and surrenders.
September 2, 1945: V-J Day (victory over Japan)
Both Fascism and Communism are considered to be Totalitarian. Totalitarianism is a political system where the state, and frequently one person or faction, has total control over the government with no limits