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Chapter 13 Post Modern Approaches

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Paola Lopez

on 20 November 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 13 Post Modern Approaches

Chapter 13: Post Modern Approaches
Solution Focused Brief Therapy
Multicultural Perspective
The Post Modern Approach is a good fit with diverse worldviews.

Summary
Therese Bohlman, Emily Dutcher, Kayley Gillespie, Kandace Ryan, Krista Norton, Paola Lopez& Brandon Caleb

Critical stance toward taken-for-granted knowledge.

Language and concepts we use to generally understand the world are historically and culturally specific.

That knowledge is constructed through social processes.

Negotiated understandings (social constructions).

Social Constructionist subscribe to the following
Contemporary Founders of
Postmodern Therapies

Social Constructionism
Historical Glimpse
From Freud, Adler and Jung...the 21st Century postmodern constructions of alternative knowledge sources seem to be one of the paradigm shifts most likely to affect the field of psychotherapy.
The creation of the self, which so dominated the modernist search for human essence and truth, is being replaced with the concept of socially storied lives.
Therapy Practices
Collaborative language systems approach (Anderson & Goolishian, 1992)

Solution-focused brief therapy (de Shazer, 1985, 1988, 1991, 1994)

Solution-oriented therapy (Bertolino & O’Hanlon, 2002; O’Hanlon & Weiner-Davis, 2003)

Narrative therapy (White & Epston, 1990)

Feminist therapy (Brown, 2010).


Realities do not exist independent of observational processes.
Any understanding of reality is based on the use of language and is largely a function of the situations in which people live.
Our knowledge about realities is socially constructed.

What, Who, Where, When--Solution Focused Brief Therapy?
Steve de Shazer& Insoo Kim Berg in Milwaukee in the early 1980s.
SFBT focuses on exceptions to their problems and conceptualized solutions.
Evolved from dissatisfaction with the constraints of strategic model.
Optimistic Approach
SFBT relies on assumption that people can create solutions to enhance their lives.

Sometimes people need a therapist because they lose sense of direction/awareness of competency.

Role of therapist: help clients recognize their competencies by building clients’ hope & optimism, creating positive expectations that change is possible.

Important for therapist to accept clients as they are & assisting them to create solutions.

Unique Focus
No interest in understanding problem, knowing its cause
No necessary relationship between causes and solutions
Do not need to gather info about problem to create change
Focus on the present and the future instead of the past
Clients choose their goals; little attention to diagnosis, history of/exploring problem

Find out what the client wants rather than what they do not want.
Look for what the client is doing that is already working.
If what they are doing is not working , encourage them to experiment.
Keep therapy brief by approaching each session as if it were the last and only session.
Types of Questions
a collection of exceptions vs. current problems.

questions that direct clients to times when the problem did not exist or was not as intense.

conversations discussing what has to happen for exceptions to occur more often.

“If a miracle happened and the problem you have was solved overnight, how would you know it was solved, and what would be different?” Considering hypothetical situations changes how the problem is perceived.

questions asked when change in human experiences aren’t easily observed (feelings, mood, communication). “On a scale of one to ten, how would you rate your anxiety?” If client moves up or down one number, easy to see what they are doing, how they can take steps that will lead to change.

Process of SFBT
News of the Difference:

Exception Questions:


Change-Talk:


Miracle Questions:




Scaling Questions:


Miracle Question
Scaling Questions
Beginning with the end in mind....
Therapist must be mindful of working toward termination from the beginning.
Identify things to do to maintain and continue changes

Narrative
Therapy
The Role of Stories
We live our lives by the stories we tell about ourselves and that others tell about us.
Narrative therapists assist clients in mapping the influence a problem has had on their lives. To help the client create meaning and new possibilities from their stories.
Goals& Relationship
Collaboration, compassion, reflection and discovery characterize the narrative therapy relationship.
Function& Role
Facilitating the articulation of values and ethical commitments of the client.
Help the client construct a preferred story line.
Assume the client is the expert when it comes to what he or she wants in life.
Therapists usually assume that the various aspects of dominate culture influence human life.
Techniques& Procedures
Narrative Therapy is more dependent on therapist's attitudes or perspectives than on techniques.

Externalization& Deconstruction
Externalization is the process that separates the person from identifying with the problem.
Alternative Stories & Reauthoring
People can continually and actively re-author their lives.
Invite the client to describe their experiences in a new& fresh language.
Narrative Therapists Role& Function:
Narrative Therapist use questions to generate experience rather than to gather information.
Mapping the influence of the problem provides useful information and often results in people feeling less shame or blame.
Narrative Therapists invite clients to author alternative stories.
Narrative Therapists seek to elicit new possibilities and embed them in the life narratives and processes of their clients.
Social Constructionism is congruent with the philosophy of multicultural therapy.
Culturally diverse clients often experience expectations that they should conform their lives to the truths and reality of the dominant society of which they are part.
Narrative Therapy
Especially effective for multicultural clients.
Relational and anti-individualistic.
Problems are identified within social, cultural , political, and relational contexts rather than existing within the individual.

Social Constructionism
Cases of Multicultural Counseling
Questions for the Multicultural Client
Tell me more about the influence that some aspect of your culture has played in your life?
What can you share with me about your background that will enable me to more fully understand you?
What challenges have you faced growing up in your culture?
What if anything , about your background has been difficult for you?
How have you been able to draw on strengths and resources from your culture?
What resources can you draw from in your times of need?

Shortcomings from a Diversity Perspective
Individuals from different cultures often assume the therapist is the expert.
The client may have a lack of confidence in the therapist if they do not see them as the expert.
The therapist must let the client know they are the expert in the process of therapy but the client is the expert in their life.

A Family Affair
A counselor must take into account the importance of family in other cultures.
In other cultures preserving family harmony is more important than fulfilling personal desires
.
I Hear Dead People
Our reality is not everyone else's.
Post Modern Approaches
Homework therapist assigns to client between sessions.

• Introduction to the Post-Modern theory
o History& Founders
o What is social constructionism and how is it practiced?
• Solution Focused Brief therapy
o What is it?
o Approaches (people can create solutions to enhance their lives).
• Narrative Therapy
o Re-author your life.
o Create new stories and possibilities.
• Post-Modern from a Multicultural Perspective
o Social constructionism is congruent with the philosophy of multicultural therapy.
o Questions and stories from a multicultural perspective.
Full transcript