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The Nursing Theory of Sister Callista Roy

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Nursing Theory

on 11 February 2015

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Transcript of The Nursing Theory of Sister Callista Roy

Motivation
Sister Callista Roy believed that because there were many health care professions devoted to promoting health, it was important to distinguish nursing’s unique role in that process.

Her deep faith and view of human nature shaped how she went about developing her theory to promote adaptation and provide support to patients (Parker, 2010).
Clinical Application
Using Roy’s theory can help guide the nursing process and implement an appropriate goal based on behaviors where ineffective adaptation might be occurring.

Roy’s adaption model allows an accurate and comprehensive assessment of the patient based on all four adaption modes.


Example:
A pregnant patient becomes unhappy with her physical appearance and begins eating less than recommended. The nurse could use Roy’s adaption theory during the nursing
process to assess the stimuli influencing the behavior. Once the stimuli is determined goals can be set based on physiologic and self-concept adaption to help the patient adapt to her body changes and promote a healthy pregnancy.
Environment
The surrounding stimuli that affect the adaptability and behavior of people and groups of people. Stimuli are either external from forces outside the individual or internal from forces within the individual (Quinn, 2011).
Roy Adaptation Model:
There are 4 Adaptive Modes:

 Physiologic-physical
 Self-concept-group identity
 Role function
 Interdependence
Client
Human systems such as the individual, groups of people, communities, etc. with the ability to adapt by coping through four adaptive modes (Quinn, 2011).
The Nursing Theory of Sister Callista Roy
Adaptive Mode highlights for the Individual and the Relational Person:
Children
Adaptive Modes
Types of Stimuli

Focal stimuli
- those immediately affecting
the individual (Quinn, 2011).


Contextual stimuli
– those in the environment
other than the focal stimuli which influence
how the individual copes with the focal
stimulus (Quinn, 2011).


Residual stimuli
– those with unclear
influence (Quinn, 2011).
Elizabeth Deming, Alyssa Dukes, Jessica Duncan, Rhiannon Dysart, Angela Espinoza & Katlyn Evans
Abstract
Sister Callista Roy’s nursing theory was developed more than three decades ago and is still widely used today to deliver care, conduct research, and educate. Roy’s model views human beings as unique, and focuses on the continuous interaction that the individual encounters with both internal and external environments. This theory assumes that as the individual encounters various forms of stimuli prompting adaption to take place, resulting in changes of behavior. The goal of nursing is to promote adaption in the following four adaption modes: physiologic, self-concept, role function, and interdependence. The information provided within this presentation explains the history of the theory and reasons for development, as well as how it affects the nursing profession and metaparadigms of client, nursing, health, and environment. An example of how this theory could be implemented in the nursing process is also provided.
Introduction
Sister Callista Roy:
An Adaptation Model
The Roy Adaptation Model focuses on a holistic approach to nursing practice.
There are 3 main elements of the model, each of which is described for both the Individual Person and the Relational Person.
 Coping Processes

 Adaptive Modes

 Adaptation Levels
Roy Adaptation Model:
Coping Processes
Coping processes are methods used to interact with the surrounding environment.
For the
Individual
:

 Regulator – internal physiologic systems

 Cognator – perception and emotion

For the
Relational Person
:

 Stabilizer – societal support

 Innovator – methods for change and/or
growth
Adaptive Modes
Mode
Individual
Relational
Physiologic-physical
5 Needs: oxygen, nutrition,
elimination, activity/rest,
protection
Operating Resources
Self-concept-
group identity
Physical self – body image
Personal self – beliefs
Group Identity
Role function
Social Integrity – personal
self in relation to others
Role Clarity &
Expectations
Interdependence
Relational Integrity – significant others & support
systems
Infrastructure
Roy Adaptation Model:
Adaptation Levels
There are 3 Adaptation Levels:

 Integrated – both physiologic and social structure and function align to meet needs

 Compensatory – requires significant coping processes to adapt

 Compromised – insufficient coping processes; adaptation problem
Roy Adaptation Model:
Future of Nursing Practice
The Roy Adaptation Model can guide the future of our nursing practices in many meaningful ways. The underlying theme of establishing holistic care is key – be mindful of the whole individual, and inclusive of their familial and societal norms and surroundings.
 Holistic approach to nursing care

 Assess the individual as a whole – physical, emotional

 Address the individual’s roles, relationships, and societal interdependence

 Strive to maintain individual’s integrity
o What is important to the individual?
o How can I, as a nurse, help the individual to achieve
adaptation or an integrated way of life to meet their
needs?
(Hanna & Roy, 2001)
(Hanna & Roy, 2001)
(Hanna & Roy, 2001)
(Hanna & Roy, 2001)
(Hanna & Roy, 2001)
(Hanna & Roy, 2001)
As a pediatric nurse Roy noticed that children were incredibly resilient when nursing support was provided.
Roy deemed that this resiliency was due to children’s high ability to adapt, and called it
positive coping
.
From this idea Roy created her idea of nurses unique role or goal as a promoter of health, to promote
adaptation
.
(Parker, 2010)
Sister Callista Roy is a professor of nursing at Boston College and a religious sister of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet. She has been doing research in the field of nursing for the past 31 years. According to her Boston College biography, "Dr. Roy is best for developing The Roy adaptation model of nursing." (www.bc.edu/schools/son/faculty/featured/theorist.html)

This presentation explores Roy's adaptation theory, her motivation for creating it, the metadigms of the theory and provides examples of clinical applications for the theory.


Metaparadigm Concepts

Physiologic
– basic needs such as eating,
sleeping, breathing etc.


Self-Concept
– influenced by how one
interacts with and is perceived by others


Role Concept
– how one perceives themself
based off of their role in society (job, duties in
family, etc.)


Interdependence
– how one reacts to
attention, affection, and help from others
(Creasia, 2013)
Health
The outcome of the client’s ability to
adapt. The goal is for the client to be whole
integrated system (Quinn, 2011).
Health and illness can coexist. Health is a holistic
process of becoming a whole system, while
illness is a deficiency in the integration (Creasia,
p.103).
Nurse
Influences and focuses on the client’s ability
to adapt through the four adaptive modes
(Quinn, 2011).
Encourages full life-potential by altering or
maintaining environmental stimuli (Creasia,
p.103)
(Lee, Tsang, Wong & Lee, 2011)
One of several current nursing theories, Roy's model adaptation focuses on the role of the nursing profession to help patients achieve balance within themselves and in their surrounding environment. Equipped with the information presented, it is for the nursing students viewing these projects to determine which nursing theory is most applicable in their future careers.
Conclusion
References
Creasia, J. L., Friberg, E. (2011). Conceptual foundations: The bridge to professional nursing

practice. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Connell School of Nursing (2014). Sr. Callista Roy, PhD, RN, FAAN. Retrieved from http://

www.bc.edu/schools/son/faculty/featured/theorist.html

Hanna, D. R., & Roy, Sr. C. (2001). Roy adaptation model and perspectives on the

family.
Nursing Science Quarterly
,
14
, 10-13. doi: 10.1177/08943180122108148

Lee, L. Y., Tsang, A. Y., Wong, K. F., & Lee, J. K. (2011). Using the roy adaption model to

develop an antenatal assessment instrument.
Nursing Science Quarterly, 24
(4), 363-369.

doi:10.1177/0894318411419209

Parker, M. E. (2010). 
Nursing theories and nursing practice: Sister callista roy's

adaptation model
. F.A.Davis Company.

Quinn Griffin, M. (2011). Roy adaptation model. In 
Encyclopedia of nursing research
.

New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company. Retrieved from http://

literati.credoreference.com.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/content/entry/spennurres/

roy_adaptation_model/0
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