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DRAINAGE SYSTEM IN INDIA

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EMPERIND

on 17 January 2018

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Transcript of DRAINAGE SYSTEM IN INDIA

India's drainage system is an outcome of the evolutionary process of physiography and rainfall.
Innumerable rivers with their tributaries carry the rain water of India into sea.
The total volume of annual precipitation in the country has been estimated at about
37,00,400
million cubic metres of this,
16,77,532
million cubic mitres i.e. about
45.3
per cent flow through
113 rivers.
The area drained by a river is known as its basin, catchment area or water shed.
Every river, big are small, has its basin or watershed, or catchment area.
on the basis of their origin, nature and characteristics, the Indian rivers may be grouped into four
The Himalayan rivers,

peninsular rivers,

coastal rivers,
and
rivers of inland
basins.
THE HIMALAYAN RIVERS
The Himalayan river system has evolved through a long
geological history
.
It consists of three major rivers:
The Brahmapurtra,

the Ganga
and


the Indus.

The Brahmaputra and the Indus originate on the southern slope f the Tibetan highlands.
These rivers run
parallel
to the axis of the Himalayas and take sudden turn towards the south cutting deep gorges in the mountain ranges to reach the Great plains.
The deep gorges of these rivers, specially
the Brahmaputra
,
the Kosi,

the Gandak,

the Alaknanda
,
the Satluj
and the Indus prove that they are older than the mountains.
They continue to flow through out the building phase of the Himalayas by cutting their beds lower and lower resulting to steep rise in their banks.
These rivers are not consequence to the Himalayan relief. they are good examples of the

antecedent drainage.
Geological evidences suggest that the major rivers originating from the Himalayas are the
old tributaries

of the
Indo-Brahma
river that flowed from
east to west
.
This huge river succeeded the sea of Tethys. after its filling by the detritus brought by the Himalayan rivers.
The direction of the flow of
the Indo-Brahma
changed from
east-west
to
west-east
after the uplifting of the region that now comprises the Indus basin.
The Himalayan river system consists of several river systems among which the following are the most important ;
c. The Brahmaputra river system
a. The Indus river system
b. The Ganga river system
The Indus system
It is one of
the largest river basins
in the world comprising of five main tributaries namely :
the sutluj
the Jhelem
the Chenab,
the Ravi,
the Beas and
the Indus originates in Tibet at an altitude of
5180 m
near
Mansarover lake.
It runs nort-westward and after cutting the Himalayan range enters India near
Damchok
in Jammu and Kashmir.
after flowing through
Ladakh.
Baltistan and Gilgit it enters Pakistan near
Chillas
in the Dardistan region.
THE INDUS
Receives a number of Himalayan tributaries such as
the shyok,
the Gilgit
,
the Zaskar,

the Hunza,
the Nubra,
the Shlgar etc..
borth on th right and the left banks. It finally emerges out of the hills near
attock.

where it receives
the Kabul river
on its right bank.
The other important tributaries joining the right bank of the Indus are
The Kurram,

the Tochl,
the Gomal,
the Viboa
and
the Sangar.
They all originate in
the Sulaiman
ranges. The river flows southward and receives Punjab a little above
Mithankot.
It finally discharges into
the Arebian sea
east of
Karachi.
The Indus flows in India through
jammu and Kashmir
only.
The total length of indus river is in India it flows only
710
km.
THE JHELUM
The Jhelum is an important tributary of the Indus. It rises from a spring at
Verinag
situated in
the south-eastern
part of the
valley of Kashmir.
It flowsthrough
Srinagar
and
Wular lakes
before entering Pakistan through a narrow gorge.
Out of the total drainage area of this basin,
28.490 km
lie in India. It runs along the Indo- Pak border between
Muzzaffarabad and Pakistan.
2
It joins the Chenab near Jhang in Pakisthan.
The river is navigabel for about 160 km out of a total length 724 km.
It forms Indo-Pak border for 170 km.
THE CHENAB
The chenab is the largest tributary of the Indus. It Is formed by two streams,
The Chandra
and
the Bhaga
which join at
Tandi
near
Kylong.
These rivers rise in the snow covered peaks of
the Himalayas in Himachal Pradesh.
the river flows for
1180 km
and drains
26,755 sq km
area in India

THE RAVI
The Ravi is the next important tributary of the
Indus.

It rises west of the
Rohtang
pass in the Kullu hills of
Himachal Pradesh
and flows through
the Chamba
valley of the state.
The river has a length of
725 km
and a drainage area of
5,957 km
in India.
2
It drains the area lying between the southeastern part of
the Pir Panjal
and
the Dhaoladhar
ranges.
THE BEAS
the Beas another tributary of the Indus, originates from the Beas kund near
the Rohtang Pass
at an elevation of
4000 metres
.
It is
470 km
long and drains
25,900 km2
of area.
It flows trough the
Kullu valley,
and after the
Dhaoladhar range
enters the Punjab plains.
It meets the Satluj near
Harika
.
THE SUTLUJ
the Sutluj an important tributary of the Indus, orijinates in the
Rakas lake
at an altitude of
4,555n tn
Tibet.
It flows for about
1,050 km
and drains
24,087 km
of area in India.
It passes through
the Shipkila
of the Himalayan ranges and enters the Punjab plains.
It is a very important tributary as it feeds the canal system of
the Bhakra Nangal project,
Harika and Sirhind.
THE INDUS DRAINAGE SYSTEM
RIVER
SOURCE
LENGTH IN KM
Indus Near Mansarovar Lake 2880
Jherum Verinag 724
Chenab Bara Lacha Pass 1180
Ravi Near Rohtang pass 725
Beas Near Rohtang pass 460
satluj Mansarovar- Rakas Lakes 1450
THE GANGA SYSTEM
The is the most important river of India both from the point of view of its basin and cultural significance.
It rises in the Gangotri glacier near
Gomukh
in Uttarkashi district of Uttaranchal
.
Here,it is known as the
Bhagirathi.
it cuts though the Central and the Lesser Himalayas In narrow gorges.
At
Devprayag,
the Bhagirathi meets the
Aloaknanda.
from here it is known as
the Ganga.
Tha Alaknanda has its source in the Satopanth glacier above
Badrinath.
The Ganga enters the plains at
Haridwar.
From here, it flows first to the south, then to the southeast and east before splitting Into two distributaries namely the
Bhagirathi
and
the Hugli.
The river has a length of
2,525
kilometres. It is shared by
Uttaranchal
and
Uttar Pradesh(1,450km),

Bihar(445km)
and
West bengal(520km).
The Ganga basin covers about
9,52,000 km
in India alone.
2
The Ganga river system is large in India, having a number of perennial and non perennial rivers originating in the Himalayas in the north and the peninsula in the south.
The major right bank tributaries are :
All of them originate in the central highlands and Kaimur ranges.
the Yamuna,
the

Son
and the Punpun.
the important left bank tributaries are :
and Mahananda.
the Ramganga,
the Gomati
Ghaghara,
Rapti,
Gandak
Kosi
All of them are perennial and originate in the Himalayas. The Ganga splits itself into two distributaries named
Bhagirathi
-
Hugli
and
Padma.
Below
Farakka
in Maida district of West Bengal. The river finally discharges itself into the
Bay of Bengal.
THE YAMUNA

the Yamuna western most and
the longest tributary
of the Ganga, has its source in
the Yamunotri
glacier on the Banderpunch range.
It is joined by
the Chambal,

Sindh,

Betwa
and
Ken
on its right bank. The Yamuna drains the areas of
Uttaranchal,

Delhi
and
Uttar Pradesh.
THE CHAMBAL
The Chambal rises near
Mhow
in
the Malwa plateau
of
Madhya Pradesh
and flows northwards through gorge up to
Kota
in Rajasthan.
the Gandhi sagar dam
has been constructed here. From Kota it traverses down
Bundi,

Sawai Madhopur
and
Dholpur
to finally join the Yamuna.
The Chambal is
960 km
long and its important tributaries are
the Banas
on the left bank, and
the Kali and Sindh
on the right bank.
The Chambal is famous for badland topography called
ravines.
THE GANDAK
The Gandak rises in Nepal Himalayas between
the Dahulagiri
and
Mount Everest
and drains the central part of Nepal.
It enters the Ganga plain in Champaran district of Bihar and joins the Ganga at
Sonapur
near Patna
THE KOSI
The kosi is
an antecedent
river with its source to the north of Mount Everest in Tibet, Where its main stream Arun rises.
After crossing the central Himalaya in Nepal, it is joined by the
Sun Kosi
from the west and
the Tamur Kosi
from the east.
It forms
Sapt Kosi
after uniting with the Arun river.
The Kosi with its migration tendencies Is often called
"The Sorrow of Bihar".
Despite several river conservancy measures it still causes major floods practicaly each year.
THE RAMGANGA
The ramganga comparatively a small river rising in
the Kumaun hills.
It is deflected to the southwest by
the Shiwalik
which cuts through before reaching the Ganga plain at
Nijibabad.

It joins the Ganga near
Kanauj.

THE SARDA (sariyu)
The sarda river rises in
the Milam
glacier in Nepal Himalayas where it is known as
the Goriganga.
Along
the Indo-Nepal
border it is called
Kali
and
Chauk
when it joins
the Ghaghara
near Baranki in Uttar Pradesh.
THE MAHANANDA
The mahananda rises in
the Darjiling hills
and joins the Ganga on its east.
This is the last left bank tributary of the Ganga.
THE SON
The son is a large south bank tributary of the Ganga originating in the
Amarkantak plateau.
After forming a series of waterfalls at the edge of the plateau, it reaches
Patna
to join the Ganga.
THE DAMODAR
The damodar occupies the eastern margins of the
Chhotanagpur
plateau where it flows through
a graben or a rift valley.
The Barakar
is its main tributary. The Damodar finally joins the
Hugli.
THE GANGA DRAINAGE SYSTEM
RIVER
SOURCE
LENGTH in Km
Ganga Gangotri Glacier 2525
Yamuna Yamunotri Glacier 1376
Chambal Near Mhow (M.P) 1050
Ram Ganga Garhwal (U.P.) 596
Ghaghar Near Gurla Mandhata 1080
Peak South of Manasarovar
Gandak Tibet-Nepal Border 425
Kosi Sikkim- Nepal- The Himalaya 730
Mahananda Darjeeling Hills 603
son Amarkantak Plateau 780
THE BRAHMAPUTRA SYSTEM
The Brahmaputra, one of
the largest rivers
of the world, has its origin in the Trans- Himalayan glacier of
the Kailash range
nerar Manasarover lake.
from here it traverses eastward longitudinally for a distance of
1200 km
in a dry and flat region of southern Tibet as the Tsangpo, which means purifier.
The Rango Tsangpo
is the major right bank tributary of this river in Tibet.
It emerges as a turbulent and dynamic river after breaching the Central Himalayas near
Namcha
under the name of Slang and then
Dihang
, it enters india west of
'Sdiya town'
in Arunachal Pradesh.
Flowing south west, it receives its main left bank tributaries viz.
Dibang
and
Lohit
, thereafter it is known as
the Brahmaputra.
The Brahmaputra receives numerous tributaries in its
750 km
long journey in
the Assam valley.
The major left bank tributaries are the
Burhi Dihing
.
Dhansari
and
Kalang
whereas the important right bank tributaries are
the Subansari
which rises in Tibet Himalayas,
Kamang,

Manas
and
Sankosh.
it enters into Bangladesh near
Dubari
and flows southward.
In Bangladesh,
the Tista
joins it on its right bank from where the river is known as
the Jamuna.
After Traversing a total length of about
2900 km
in Tibet.
India and Bangladesh, it finally merges with
the Padma river
which discharges in
the Bay of Bengal.
The river is nearly
16 km
wide at
Dibrugarh
and forms many islands.
the most important of which is
Majuli
the Largest Riverine island which has
UNESCO

World Heritage site status.
THE BRAHMAPUTRA DRAINAGE SYSTEM
NAME OF THE RIVER
SOURCE
LENGTH IN KM
Brahmaputra Rises from the snout 885
of Chemayungdung glacier,
about 100 km south west of
Mansorovar Lake
Tista Kanchanjunga -
Sankosh Bhutan -
Manas Tibet -
Subansiri Arunachal Himalaya 420
Dhansiri Naga Hills 300
THE PENINSULAR RIVERS
The Peninsular river system is
older
then the Himalayan river system.
The Western Ghats
running close to the western coast constitute the main water divide between small rivulets discharging into
the Arabian sea
and the major peninsular rivers discharging in
the Bay of Bengal.
Most of the major pesular rivers,
except

the Narmada
and
the Tapti
, flow from east to west.
The main river basins of the peninsula are
the Mahanadi,
Godavari,
Krishna
and
Kaveri
which discharge their water into
the Bay of Bengal
and form the huge
delta
near their mouths.
The rivers flowing westward form the Western Ghats are small and do not form
delta.
A brief account of major rivers of the peninsula is given below.

It is the largest peninsular river system. It is also called
Dakshin Ganga
or
Vridha Ganga
because of its location, age, size and length.
It rises in
Nasik district
of Maharashtra and discharges in
the Bay of Bengal.
The Godavari
The Krishna
The Mahanadi
The Kaveri
The Narmada
The Tapi
THE GODAVARI
Its tributaries run through the states of
Maharashtra,

Madhya Pradesh,

Chhattisgarh,

Orissa
and
Andra Pradesh.
It is
1456 km
long and its catchment area spreads over
3, 12,812 km,
of this
49 percent
lies in Maharashtra ,
20 percent
in Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh, and the rest in Andhra Pradesh.
Its principal tributaries are :
The Penganga
The Wardha,
The Wainganga
Tha Sabari
The Manjra and
The Pranahita.
THE KRISHNA
It is the second largest east flowing peninsular river and rises in the
Sahyadri
near
Mahabaleshwar.
Its total length is
1400km.
The Bhima and the Tungbhadra with
76,614 km
and
71,417 km
of catchment areas respectively are the principal tributaries.
2
2
2
Of the total catchment area of the Krishna,
27 percent
lies in
Maharastra,

44 percent
in
Karnataka
and
29 percent
in
Andra Pradesh
.
Its major tributaries are the :
The Koyna
The Yerea,
The Verna
The Panchganga.
The Musi.
The Tungbhadra.
The Bhima
THE MAHANADI
it rises near
Sihawa
in Raipur district of Chattisgarh and runs through Orissa to discharge itself into the
Bay of Bengal .
It is
858 km
long and its catchment area spreads over 1,41,589 km.
2
Fifty three per cent
of the drainge basin of the river lies in
Madhya Pradesh
and
the Chhattisgarh,
while
47 percent in Orissa.
the main tributaries of the river are :
The Seonath.
The Hasdo.
The Mand.
The Ib.
The Jonking.
The Tel.
THE KAVERI
It rises in
Brahamagiri
hills of
Coorg district
in karnataka.
Its length is
800 km
and drains an area of
67,900 km.
2
The river carries water throughout the year with comparatively less fluctuation than the other peninsular rivers.
three per cent
of the Kaveri basin falls in
Kerala
,
41 per cent
in
Karnataka
and
56 percent
in
Tamil nadu.
its right bank tributaries are the :
The Lakshmanatirtha,
The Suvarnavati,
The Bhavani
The Amravati
The Kabani
The left bank tributaries are :
The Herangi
Hemavati
The Arkavati
THE NARMADA
It is a west flowing river originating near
Amarkantak
in Madhya Pradesh.
With a length of
1300 km,
the river discharges into
the Arebian Sea.

its basin extends over
98,796 km2.
About 87 percent of the Narmada basin lies in
Madhya Pradesh
and rest in
Gujarat.
None of its tributaries flows for more than
200 km
except
Orison
with a total length of
300 km.
Most of them are dry in summer.
THE TAPI
Thapi river is the other
westward
flowing river of significance. It begins its journey from
Betul
district of Madhya Pradesh.
It is
724 km
long. drains an area of
64,750 km .

79 percent
of its basin lies in
Gujarat.
The Tapi is Joined by
the Purna,

Veghar,

Girna
,
Bori
and
Panjhra
from its left and
the Aner
from right . only the lower course of the river is navigable.
2
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HIMALAYAN AND PENINSULA RIVERS
ASPECT
HIMALAYAN RIVERS
PENINSULAR RIVERS
Nature of flow Perennial as dependent Seasonal dependent
on rain fall as well as
snow melt
Catchment area very large basins Small basins
Erosion course Deep valleys and gorges Shallow graded
in the Himalaya due to valleys with little erotion
intensive erosion
Nature of the course Mending course and shifting Straight and lianer
beds in the Great plains course
Other features V- shaped valleys, high water Shallow valleys,
falls and huge dalta small water falls,
delta and estuaries
MAJOR RIVERS OF THE PENINSULAR INDIA
NAME OF SOURCE LENGTH IN AREA DRAINED VALUME OF AVERAG IMPORTANT
THE RIVER Km (Sq Km) ANNUAL FLOW TRIBUTARIES
(million cubic metres)
mahanadi
Dhandakaranya near
Sihawa in Raipur
district of Chattisgarh
857
141,600
67,000
Ib,mand Hasdo, Sheonath, Ong, Jonk, Tel
Godavari
Trimbak Plateau near
Nashik in Maharashtra
1,465
312,812
105,000
Manjira, Penganga, Wardha, Indravati, Sabari, Pranhita
Krishna
Near Mahabaleshwar in Maharashtra
1,400
258,948
67,670
Koyna, Ghatprabha,
Malprabha, Bhima, Tungabhadra, musi Meneru.
Cauvery
Taal Mahabaleshwar in Maharashtra
800
87,900
20,950
Herangi, Hemavati, Lokpapavani, Shisha, Arkavati, Lakshmanatirtha, Kabani, Suvanavati, Bhavani, Amaravati.
Narmada
Amarakantak Plateau
1,310
98,796
40,700
Hiran, Orsang, Barna, Kolar, Burhner, Banjar, Shar, Shakhar, Tawa, Kundi.
Tapi
Multai in Betul
Distt. of M.P
730
65,145
17,980
Purna, Betul, Patki, Ganjal, Dathranj, Bokad, Amravati.
NAME OF SOURCE LENGTH IN AREA DRAINED VALUME OF AVERAG IMPORTANT
THE RIVER Km (Sq Km) ANNUAL FLOW TRIBUTARIES
(million cubic metres)
COASTAL RIVERS
The coastal rivers flow to the west into
the Arabian sea
and to the east into the Bay of Bengal.
Important west flowing rivers are
the Shetrunji,
Bhadra,
Dhadhar
, ,
Vaitarna,
Kalinadi
,
Bedti,
Sharavati
,
Bharathapuzha,
Periyar
and
Pamba.
The Shetrunji rises near Dalkahwa in Amreli district, the Bhadra near Aniali Village in
Rajkot district,
and
the Dhadhar
near
Ghantar village
in Panchmahal district of Gujarat.
The Dhandhar is
135 km
long and has a catchment area of
2770 km,
The
Vaitarana
rises on the southern slopes of the
Trimbak hills,
in
Nasik district
of Maharasthra.
at an elevation of
670 m
and drains into the Arabian sea near
Valsad,
after flowing for
172 km.
2
The Kalinadi
rises near Bidi village in
Belgaum
district, Karnataka, and falls into the
Karwar Bay.
Its catchment area is
5,179 km.

The Bedti
rises in the hills around
Hubli-Dharwar
at an elevation of
701 m.
its
161 km
long.
2
The Sharavati
rises in
Shimoga
district of Karnataka and has the famous
Gersoppa falls.

It has a catchment area of about
2,209 km
2
The Bharathapuzha,
also known as the Ponnani is the longest river of Kerala. It rises near Annamalai hills and has a drainage areas of
5,397 km
2
The Periyar the second largest river of Kerala, has a catchment area of
5,243
km
2
The Pamba is
177 km
long and falls Into the
Vembanad lake.
The important east flowing rivers-other than
the Subarnarekha,

the Baitarani
and
the Brahmani
are
the Vamsadhara,

the Penner,

the Palar
and
the Vaigai.
The Vamsadhara
originates in southern part of
Orrissa
and through
Andra Pradesh
joins the Bay of Bengal.
The Penner
Originates in
Nand Durg
peak in Karnataka and flows through
Andra Pradesh.
The total length of the river is
597 km.
The Palar has a catchment area of about
17,870 km.
The
Jayamangli,

The Kunderu,

Saigileru,

Chitravati,

Papagni
and
the Cheyyar
are important tributaries.
The Vaigai rises in Kerala and receives diverted waters of
the Periyar
and ultimately joins the
Palk Bay.
The minor coastal rivers are characterized by steep gradients, heavy silts and flashy nature of flow. They play an important role in the irrigation of agricultural lands in
the coastal areas.
East flowing rivers West flowing rivers
rivers mainly flow between mountain ranges, hence the catchments are elongated and narrow
catchments are wide and fan shaped.
rivers don't form deltas on their mounths because of velocity and fast growing.
the form deltas and have deltaic deposits.
waterfalls are found on these rivers.
carry less sediments.
no water falls
carry more sediments.
SOME IMPORTANT LAKES
Pulicat Lake - Andra Pradesh
Kolleru Lake - Andra Pradesh
Loktak Lake - Manipur
Lonar Lake - Maharashrtra
Nakki Lake - Mount Abu(raj)
Deedwana Lake - Deedwana (raj)
Panchbhadra Lake - Rajasthan
Dal Lake - Srinagar (J and K)
Lingtzi Tang - Jammu and Kashmir
Tso Murari - Jammu and Kashmir
Govind Vallabh Gagar - U.P
Pichola Lake - Rajasthan
Sukhna - Chandigarh
Ashtamudi - Kerala
Vembanad Lake - Kerala
Chilka Lake - Orissa
Cho Lhamu - Sikkim
Nature of the course Mending course and shifting Straight and lianer
beds in the Great plains course
Other features V- shaped valleys, high water Shallow valleys,
falls and huge dalta small water falls,
delta and estuaries
Full transcript