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US History - Pre-Civil War
Transcript of US History - Pre-Civil War
Growth of America
First Explorers of the New World
: Christopher Columbus discovered the
"New World" and claimed land for Spain
in the Caribbean.
: John Cabot explored land off the coast of present-day Canada (Newfoundland) and claimed land for England
More Exploration of the Americas
: Both Juan Ponce de Leon and Vasco Nunez de Balboa explored for Spain - claiming Florida (Ponce de Leon) and South/Central America (Nunez de Balboa).
Continued English Exploration
: Henry Hudson sailed and claimed
: First successful English colony was established at Jamestown, Virginia.
1620: Another group of colonists, who were in search of religious freedom, left for the New World. They created the Plymouth Colony, and later became a part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
By 1682, all of the Mid-Atlantic, or Middle, Colonies had been created and were claimed by England.
: wide, deep rivers, coastal lowlands, many harbors and bays and the Appalachian Mountains
Rich farmland and moderate climate made it easy to farm.
: Coastal cities were great for trading and fishing. Rich farmland was good for producing livestock and growing grains/corn as crops
Known as the "Breadbasket" Colonies because of the high amount of grains and corn grown.
By 1733, all of the Southern Colonies had been established - with Virginia being the 1st colony created in 1607 and Georgia being the last.
: warm, humid climate with rich soil; lots of good harbors and many rivers used to ship goods
: Agriculture was most important with both large plantations and small farms.
Important cash crops: tobacco, rice, and indigo.
Wood products were also important to the economy.
Because of the plantations, the slave trade grew the most in the Southern colonies.
Lexington and Concord
"Shot heard 'round the world."
First battle of the war
Turning point of the war - convinced other countries to come help us defeat the British
French Navy came to assistance of Patriots
Last major battle of the Revolution
British General Cornwallis surrendered.
: Jacques Cartier sailed the St. Lawrence River and claimed land for France.
New England Colonies
By 1638, all of the New England colonies had been created.
: Hilly, rocky land, lots of trees, many port cities, cold winters, and mild summers
: depended on lumber, shipbuilding and trading at the port cities; cities also led to jobs for craftsmen and shopkeepers
Families had small gardens - just enough to support their family
Native American Tribes
Lived in the Arctic
Primarily hunters, especially whale,
seal, and other sea mammals.
Igloos were made when traveling.
Lived on the Pacific Northwest coast
Fishing and gathering tribe
Plankhouses made from cedar trees.
Lived on the Northwest Plateau near rivers
Were fishers, hunters, and gathers
Lived in the Southwestern Desert
Were primarily farmers
Built adobe homes into the desert cliffs
Lived in the Great Plains
Migrated when hunting the buffalo
Used tipis when hunting
Lived in the Southeast - primarily in Florida wetlands
Farmed, hunted and lived in chickees
Beginnings of a Revolution
Articles of Confederation vs. The Constitution
War of 1812
Impressment of American sailors
This forced American sailors to serve on British ships.
Battle of Tippecanoe vs. Tecumseh and Native Americans
Great Britain was thought to have helped the Native Americans
Battle/Burning of York (in Canada)
Burning of Washington, D.C.
Battle at Fort McHenry
Battle of New Orleans
Lewis and Clark Expedition
After Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana Territory for the U.S. from France in 1803, Jefferson sent the Corps of Discovery - headed by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark - off to explore the great unknown. They used Sacajawea as a guide and interpreter.
Drew over 140 maps of territory
Discovered new plants and wildlife, like the grizzly bear
Met and traded with many Native American tribes.
1st Americans to cross the Continental Divide, to see Yellowstone, and to enter into Montana
1754-1763 - French and Indian War
: The British and the colonists teamed up
against the French and Native Americans to fight over the Ohio River Valley
British won, but Proclamation of 1763 prohibited settlement on the land won.
British Imperial Policy (Acts)
: To pay for war debts, England began passing laws (acts) that required colonists to pay taxes.
Stamp Act - passed as a tax on all printed goods in 1765
Townshend Acts - required taxes be paid on goods, like lead, paint, paper, glass & tea
"NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION!"
Sons of Liberty and the Boston Tea Party
: The Sons of Liberty were a
secret group who worked to build support against the British
Sons of Liberty revolted against the Tea Act at the Boston Tea Party
Declaration of Independence
: On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress signed the Declaration - declared independence from England because King George III was a tyrant.
Abolition and Suffrage
: the act of getting rid of slavery
: the right to vote in a political election
- the "Moses of her People"
Escaped slavery and then led hundreds of other slaves to freedom through the Underground Railroad
- spoke out against both slavery and the fact that women needed to right to vote
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
- wrote speeches promoting women's rights, like the right to vote. Later on, also fought to end slavery.
Because of weaknesses in
the Articles of Confederation,
delegates met up to amend the
document. Instead, the delegates
ended up scrapping the whole thing
and writing a new plan of government -
our Constitution. The Constitution gave more power to the federal, or national, government and created the 3 Branches of Government.
1848-1850 - California Gold Rush
: Gold was found at Sutter's Mill by James Marshall in 1848. Word about gold got to back to the U.S. and spread like wildfire. By 1849, more than 80,000 people traveled to California and become known as 49ers. Miners (49ers) took a dangerous risk and left their homes all in
search of gold, even though very few people
struck it rich.
: First designed in 1807, the steamboats moved much faster than boats of the past - cut DAYS off travel time. They were limited to areas close to waterways.
: Because of people moving west and limited access to waterways, the steam locomotive was created. Steam trains were even faster than steamboats and only needed a railroad track to get there.
: In the 1830s, the telegraph, a device that sends messages along a wire using electricity,
was invented. This allowed messages to
be received in minutes, rather than weeks.
1840 - Oregon Trail
: This long, treacherous journey followed
the rivers and took about 6 months - beginning in Independence, Missouri and going to all the way to the Northwestern United States. Pioneers faced disease, bad weather, and accidents, and they carried everything they needed with them in covered wagons.
1846-1848 - War with Mexico
: After the Battle at the Alamo in 1836, Texas became an independent country, but the land still officially belonged to Mexico. War broke out with Mexico when they refused to sell some of their land, including present-day California and New Mexico, to the U.S. After 2 years of fighting, a treaty was signed which gave the remaining land of Texas, as well as the land for California and 6 other future states, to the U.S.