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Textiles APRL145

Ch 3 and 4
by

Laura Oliver

on 19 September 2012

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Transcript of Textiles APRL145

Ch. 3: Textile Fibers and their Properties Objectives
Understand terms describing textile fibers
Understand relationships between fiber structure and fiber properties
Relate fiber performance to end-use requirements and expectations
Identify commonly used fibers easily Ch: 4 Natural Cellulosic Fibers Fiber Definitions Natural: In fiber form as they grow or develop and come from animal, plant, or mineral source
Manufactured: Made from chemical compounds Fiber Properties Physical Structure Length
Diameter
Cross Section
Surface Contour
Crimp
Fiber parts Chemical Composition Polymerization
Amorphous
Crystalline
Oriented
Stretching or Drawing
Hydrogen Bonds
Van der Waals Forces Polymers: (a) amorphous area; (b) crystalline, but not oriented, area; (c) oriented and crystalline area. Aesthetics Terms Cover
Translucence
Luster
Drape
Texture
Hand Comfort and Safety Terms Absorbency
Dyeability
Wicking
Flammability Appearance Retention Terms Resiliency
Compressibility
Loft
Dimensional Stability
Elasticity Durability Terms Abrasion Resistance
Flexibility
Pilling
Tenacity
Cohesiveness
Elongation Visual Inspection

Burn Test

Microscopy Fiber Identification Fiber Length
Luster
Hand Reaction to heat
Manner of burning
Color and odor of smoke
Type of residue Longitudinal appearance
Cross-sectional appearance Objectives
Identify cellulosic fibers
Understand characteristics common to all cellulosic fibers
Understand performance characteristics unique to cellulosic fibers
Know the basic steps in processing these fibers Classified by portion of plant from which they are removed Natural Cellulose Fibers Seed Fibers Bast Fibers Leaf Fibers Other Cotton
Coir
Kapok
Milkweed Flax
Hemp
Jute
Ramie Abaca
Pina
Sisal
Henequen Spanish moss
Cedar bark Kenaf
Hibiscus
Nettle
Bamboo Properties Natural Cellulose Fibers What do you think of? Absorbent
Good conductor of heat
Low resiliency
Low loft
Good conductor of electricity
Heavy
Flammable
Moderate sunlight resistance Cotton! Aral Sea Fiber Consumption Fiber Length 4.10 Cotton classed as 15⁄32 inch contains fibers that range in length from 1⁄8 inch to 1-5⁄8 inches. SOURCE: Courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture. Seed Fibers Other Seed Fibers Coir Kapok Milkweed Bast Fibers Processing Retting
Scutching
Hackling Flax Structure Properties Aesthetics: irregular
Durability: stronger when wet, low elongation
Comfort: high moisture regain
Care: wrinkling Other Bast Fibers Ramie Hemp Irregular, long, lustrous
Strong and abrasion resistant
good absorbency, stiff
poor resiliency Properties
High strength
Resistant to ultraviolet light and mold
Lowest elongation Growing and Yield
20 - 30% of plant is fiber
250% higher than cotton on same land
600% higher than flax on same land
Almost no pesticides required
Hearty - no herbicides required
Roots minimize erosion Let's talk about the elephant in the room. Other Bast Fibers Jute
Kenaf
Hibiscus
Nettle
Bamboo Leaf Fibers Properties
Long, stiff fibers
Poor dye affinity Pina Abaca Sisal Other Cellulosic Materials Maize (corn husks)
Rush
Seagrass
Wicker
Palm Fiber Cotton Grading Cotton Classification
Staple Length
Grade: color and absence of dirt
Character: smoothness and uniformity Cotton Properties Aesthetics: low luster
Durability: medium
Comfort: high absorbency
Appearance: low resiliency
Care: releases most soils readily Natural Good / Synthetic Bad? Cotton and Environmental Concerns Extensive fertilizer use - runoff
Treated w/ defoliant chemicals
Heavy irrigation
Erosion
GM unknowns
Migrant worker health and safety Photomicrographs of cotton: cross-sectional view (left), longitudinal view (right). SOURCE: Courtesy of the British Textile Technology Group. Outline
Define: Natural Cellulosic Fibers
Seed Fibers: Cotton and Others
Bast Fibers
Leaf Fibers
Other Cellulosic Materials
TED: Grow Your Own Clothes http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/suzanne_lee_grow_your_own_clothes.html Suzanne Lee: Grow Your Own Clothes
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