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On Becoming a Global Teacher
Transcript of On Becoming a Global Teacher
Elementary (1st – 6th Grade)
Middle School (7th – 9th Grade)
High School (10th – 12th Grade)
Divided into 2 semesters:
1) March (start of classes) – Mid July
2) Late August – Mid February (end of classes) Elementary School (Chodeung-Hakgyo)
Levels: 1st – 6th Grade
Art Middle School (Jung-Hakgyo)
Levels: 7th – 9th Grade
Physical Education High School (Godeung-Hakgyo)
Levels: 10th - 12th Grade
Divided into 2 branches:
*Subjects taught normally focus on agriculture, fishery, commerce, trade, merchandising, marines, home economics, engineering, and arts. Vocational High School
Has 5 Fields:
5. Home Economics (mainly for females)
- When students enter 11th & 12th grade, they are offered courses relevant to their specialization.
- Student may participate in workplace training through cooperation between schools and local employers. University/College
-normally a 4-year program
-To enter college, students should take the
SU-NEUNG or College Scholastic Ability Test given by the Education Ministry. This test can only be taken once a year. South Korean Scholastic Ability Test
Has 5 sections:
1. Korean Language
4. Foreign Language
5. Various Elective Subjects
(Social, Physical Sciences) Top Universities
The country’s top schools are collectively known as “SKY Universities” partly for their initials, and partly because of the tough admission requirements.
Seoul National University (SNU)
Yonsei University Vocational College
Vocational Education and Training are provided in junior colleges of Polytechnic Institutions.
It is state-run by institutions under the responsibility of the Ministry of Labor. Programs Offered
1-year programs (focus on craftsmanship)
2-year programs (offer Industrial Associate Degree)
Known Polytechnic Colleges
Busan Polytechnic College (Busan)
Ansung Women's Polytechnic College (Gyeonggi)
Asan Information & Technology Polytechnic College (Asan, South Chungcheong) JAPAN Preschool
Elementary (1st – 6th Grade)
Lower Secondary School (7th – 9th Grade)
Upper Secondary School (10th – 12th Grade)
University/College Preschool (Yochien)
Also known as Day Care Centers.
Children start at the age of 5.
They mainly have female teachers. Kindergarten
Focused on how to read, write, count, and color Elementary School
6 - 12 years old
Grade 1 (6 – 7 years old)
Grade 2 (7 – 8 years old)
Grade 3 (8 – 9 years old)
Grade 4 (9 – 10 years old)
Grade 5 (10 – 11 years old)
Grade 6 (11 – 12 years old) Lower Secondary School (Junior High School)
12 - 15 years old
Levels: 7th - 9th Grade
Two-thirds of the teachers are male.
Junior high school teachers use the lecture method. They sometimes also use other media such as TV, radio, laboratory work, etc.
Junior high school teachers have different teachers for different subjects. Subjects:
Fine Arts Upper Secondary School
(This is not compulsory.)
Subjects are divided into two branches:
2) Vocational (preparation for employment after graduation)
Business English University/College
Normally 2 - 4 years.
In order to get into universities, students must take 2 exams:
1) Senta Shiken
(National Achievement Test/
National Administered Uniform Achievement Test)
this test is prepared by Mombusho and the upper secondary schools
2) Nyugaku Shiken
(University/College Entrance Test)
prepared by university Junior Colleges (Tanki Daigaku)
Women in junior colleges can pursue courses such as:
Humanities Open Universities
Japan has open universities for those who are busy working but want to continue with their studies. Top Universities
1. University of Tokyo
2. Kyoto University
3. Keio University
4. Waseda University
5. Osaka University
6. Tohoko University
7. Nagaya University
8. Tokyo Institute of Technology
9. Kyushu University
10. University of Tsukuba Bunsakai (Japanese Cultural Festival)
Celebrated every 3rd of November (Culture Day).
It is a national holiday.
According to the cultural guidelines by Mombosho, or Ministry of Education, the cultural festival is part of Special Activities.
It is a yearly opportunity to see what life is like in other schools.
The event aims to use the results of everyday learning for motivation. It is held to display what students have learned.
It is also intended to enrich people's lives by increasing social interactions. CHINA Preschool
Primary Grades (1st - 6th Grade)
Secondary Education (7th - 9th Grade)
Children usually usually enter at the age of 3.
Administered by municipal authorities and local groups. Primary Grades (6 - 12 years old)
Levels: 1st - 6th Grade
Elementary Instruction in Nature (Science) All primary schools are required to include morality and ethics subjects, such as love of motherland, love of party, and love of people.
It emphasizes the value of being nationalistic and socialization for progress of the nation. Secondary School
12 - 18 years old
Divided into 2 stages:
1) Junior Middle School
2) Senior Middle School
Before the student goes to Senior Middle level, he/she must take the academic examination called Zhongkao, which is prepared by secondary schools. Junior Middle School (12 - 15 years old)
Levels : 7th - 9th Grade
Senior Middle School (15 - 18 years old)
Levels: 10th - 12th Grade Academics:
Technology Vocational High School
Focuses on skills training for the job markets such as technology, trading, agriculture, as well as basic information in business.
Carpentry, cooking, welding, and tailoring are also included University/College
Students who wish to attend university must pass one of the two versions of the National University Entrance Examination.
The quality and reputation of the school will depend on the number of students passing the exam.
The course syllabi are written by scientists and professionals hired by the National Education Commission. Vocational and Technical Courses Offered:
Welding On-Line Education
Students from remote areas are the biggest beneficiaries of the program.
It is also open to those who are working, and students who failed the university entrance examinations. Top Universities:
1. Beijing University
2. Tsinghua University IRAN Preschool Education Cycle
Primary Education Cycle (5-year program)
Lower Secondary (3-year program)
Upper Secondary (3-year program)
University/College Preschool Education Cycle
Children start at the age of 5.
It is a 1-year program focused on basic notions needed to enter primary school.
There is no exam at the end of this cycle and children automatically proceed to the following cycle. Primary Education Cycle (6 - 11 years old)
Levels: 1st - 5th Grade
At the end of 5th grade, students must take a nationwide examination. Those who pass the exam are qualified to proceed to the next cycle. Lower Secondary (Middle School)
Levels: 6th - 8th Grade
11 - 14 years old
Also known as the “Guidance Cycle” – meaning, students are guided in preparation for the upper secondary adolescence stage.
At the end of the Guidance Cycle, students must take a Regional Examination under the supervision of the Board of Education. Those who pass the exam are eligible to proceed to the next cycle.
The aim of this level is to figure out the capabilities and skills of a child so that the educational system could guide the student to the most appropriate track. Upper Secondary (14 - 17 years old)
Divided into two main branches:
1) Academic/General (a.k.a. Theoretical)
2) Technical/Vocational (focused on technical, business agriculture)
Courses are mostly focused on Theoretical/Manual and Vocational/Technical. Academic/General
Literature and Culture Technical/Vocational
It is designed to train technicians for the labor market in trading, agriculture, and industrial profession. University/College
Normally 4 - 5 years
Students who have high school diplomas and have passed the National Entrance Examination (Konkur) are entitled to continue to the college/university level. 2 Ministries Responsible for Higher Education:
1) Ministry of Culture and Higher Education (Bachelor's Degree courses such as Art, Science, etc.)
2) Ministry of Medical Education (Courses such as Dentistry, Nursing, Therapy, etc.) Top Universities:
1. Tehran University
2. Sharif University
3. Tarbiat Modares University AUSTRALIA Basic Education
Academic Year: February to December Australia is divided into 6 states and 2 territories. The education system is governed by each state individually. But the main stages of education are the same: school education is compulsory between the ages of 6 and 16 (Year 1 to 10) and it comprises 13 years in total.
School starts with a preparatory year before Year 1, which is not compulsory (3-4 years old). Primary Schooling
starts with Year 1 and either ends after Year 6 or 7, depending on the local area or state. High School
After having finished primary school, the students enter secondary school starting Year 7 (or alternatively with Year 8) and leaves secondary school after Year 12. There are 2 post-school educational offered afterwards, the higher education or the vocational education and training (VET). Tertiary Education
In 2007, the Australian higher education system counted 39 universities, 1 overseas university, 4 self-accrediting higher education institutions and other non-self-accrediting higher education providers. The amount of students ranges from 3,000 up to 50,000, of which 20 percent of them are international.
The academic year starts from February and terminates in December. It is divided into 4 terms per year in most states and territories. Most universities have 2 semesters and are commonly located in cities. Not only universities form the major part of the higher tertiary education, but also the “Technical and Further Education colleges in Australia” (TAFES) are accredited as higher education institutions. Basic Education
Academic Year: September to July The education system in the U.K. is also split into "key stages" which breaks down as follows:
Key Stage 1 - 5 to 7 years old
Key Stage 2 - 7 to 11 years old
Key Stage 3 - 11 to 14 years old
Key Stage 4 - 14 to 16 years old The education system in the U.K. is divided into
5 main sections: Primary Education Primary education begins in the UK at age 5 and continues until age 11, comprising key stages one and two under the UK educational system. Secondary Education From age 11 to 16, students will enter secondary school for key stages three and four and to start their move towards taking the GCSE's - learn more about secondary education in the UK and what it will involve. Primary and secondary education is mandatory in the UK; after age 16, education is optional. Secondary Education Secondary education in the UK normally starts for most students at the age of 11 years old. Though not common, in some parts of the UK there are middle schools which run up to 12 or 13 years old. Further Education Once a student finishes secondary education they have the option to extend into further education to take their A-Levels, GNVQ's, BTEC's or other such qualifications. UK students planning to go to college or university must complete further education. Higher Education Most international students will enter directly into the UK higher education system, after completing their home country’s equivalent to the UK’s “further education.” When students reach the age of 16 and have completed their General Certificate for Secondary Education (GCSE's), they have a few options to choose from:
1) Find work
2) Academic Qualifications
3) Vocational Qualifications
If students opt for carrying on with their education this will take two forms, either by pursuing further academic qualifications or by following a more vocational pathway. U.S.A. Basic Education
Higher Education Preschool Education
starts at the age of 4
runs for 2 years
not compulsory Elementary School
starts at the age of 6 (1st Grade) and continues until successful completion of 5th Grade Middle School
lasts for another 3 years till 8th Grade High School
lasts for 4 years till the age of 18
often referred to as junior college Compulsory education differs from state to state.
Few states have compulsory education from age 6 to 15 and some other states have compulsory education till the end of 12th grade. The curricula of the school are not universally governed rather by the state education council. Most of the states have physical education as a compulsory part of curriculum. Homeschooling
is also quite often practiced in the country. Students can take their classes in the home with teachers or mentors and later appear for the school exam and clear them, then move on to the next class. Even at the school level there are elective courses including arts, athletics, computers, and foreign languages. The grading system also differs from state to state. Multicultural Education:
A Challenge to Global Teachers On Becoming a Global Teacher Broadening Teaching Perspectives:
Teacher Exchange Programs A Closer Look at
Educational Systems of
Selected Countries Educational Technology and
Innovative Teaching SOUTH AFRICA Basic Education
Academic Year: January to December Primary School
Reception to 6th Grade Secondary School
Junior Secondary - Grades 7 - 9
Further Education and Training - Grades 10 - 12 Higher Education
Certificates and Diplomas (general 1-2 years of study)
Bachelor's Degrees (from 3 to 6 years of study, depending on the course)
Honor's Degrees (1 further year of undergraduate study, requiring a thesis)
Master's Degree (2 years of post-graduate study)
Doctorate (variable in duration with a minimum of 2 years, following a Master's) South Africa’s higher education system consists of 23 publicly funded universities, consolidated since 1994, down from 36 separate institutions. Some of these are considered comprehensive and others are universities of technology. What is Multicultural Education?
Multicultural education relates to education and instruction designed for the cultures of several different races in an educational system. This approach to teaching and learning is based upon consensus building, respect, and fostering cultural pluralism within racial societies. Multicultural education acknowledges and incorporates positive racial idiosyncrasies into classroom atmospheres.
According to James Banks (1975 in Sadker, 1991), a leading researcher in the area of students, “the major goal of multicultural education is to transform the school so that the male and female students, exceptional learners, as well as students coming from diverse cultural, social-class, racial and ethnic groups will experience an equal opportunity to learn in school.” Pros and Cons of Multicultural Education Pros:
Fear, ignorance, and personal detachment may notably be reduced in both students and teachers.
Multicultural education can help eliminate the crux of stereotyping, prejudice, racism, and bigotry.
Multicultural education enables teachers and educators to give value to the differences in prior knowledge, experiences of learners from diverse backgrounds, and familiarity with students’ histories of diverse cultures. Cons:
Focusing on race and multiculturalism may lead to a further divisiveness.
Schools may see multicultural education as a way to "color blind" their students to differences.
Multicultural education may increase the resentment encountered by students who feel that changes in school traditions, curriculum, and academic standards are not necessary to get along and respect students from other groups. Diversity or difference among our students has placed greater demands to teachers in today's schools. Students may differ in:
ethnic or religious groups
(some could be stricken by poverty, unemployment, etc.)
*Inclusion of learners with special needs has also increased diversity in schools. Multicultural Education:
A Challenge to Global Teachers A Closer Look at
Educational Systems of
Selected Countries In the midst of diversity,
students are supposed to receive
equal opportunities in education. In order to do this. we need:
curricular and instructional modifications
(different) teaching styles
re-examination of teacher's attitudes, beliefs, and perception Some Responses to Multicultural Education:
environmental adaptation of classrooms
behavior support plans
team teaching ACCOMODATING CULTURAL
DIFFERENCES AND COMMONALITIES Fraser-Abner’s (2001) suggestions to assist teachers in understanding multicultural learners:
Learn as much about and become as sensitive to and aware of racial, ethnic, cultural and gender groups other than your own.
Never make assumptions about an individual based on their perception of that individual’s race, ethnicity, culture, or gender.
Get to know each student as a unique individual: Walk in the footsteps of all your students. Other suggestions:
Look into your own conscious and subconscious biases about the people who are different from yourselves in race, ethnicity, culture, gender, or socioeconomic status.
Plan your activities within a multicultural framework while making your classroom a safe and secure haven for all the students.
Infuse multicultural instructional materials and strategies in your teaching.
Foster collaboration and cooperation among your learners, parents, and teachers. Some guiding principles adapted from the interdisciplinary group of psychologists, political scientists, sociologists, and multicultural specialists: For Teacher Training Institutions:
Pre-service teacher education programs should help prospective teachers understand complex characteristics of ethnic groups in ways, race, ethnicity, language, and social class interact to influence students’ behavior. For Pre-Service Teachers:
1) Teachers should ensure that all students have equitable opportunities to learn and to perform to a standard.
2) Teachers should help students acquire social skills needed to interact effectively with students from other racial, ethnic, cultural, language or social groups.
3) The school curriculum should help students understand that knowledge is socially constructed and are reflective of social, political and economic context in which they live and work. 4) Schools should provide all students with opportunities to participate in extra- and co-curricular activities that develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes that increase academic achievement and foster positive intercultural relationships.
5) Teachers and students should learn to reduce or eliminate stereotyping and other related biases that have negative effects on racial and ethnic relations.
6) Schools should provide opportunities for students from different racial, ethnic, cultural and language groups to interact socially under conditions designed to reduce fear and anxiety.
7) Teachers should teach and students should learn about the values shared by virtually all cultural groups like justice, equality, freedom, peace, compassion, and charity among others. BASIC ASSUMPTIONS THAT
ENHANCE TEACHER DEVELOPMENT No two learners are the same.
Children in all classrooms are heterogeneous.
Strategies that work with one learner may not work with the other.
The student's background and experiences should be considered when teaching.
Community members from various ethnic groups can assist teachers when facing issues of ethnic differences and similarities. Broadening Teaching Perspectives: Teacher Exchange Programs Global Teacher
broadening your teaching perspectives
expanding your experiences
achieving a goal of competitiveness Teacher exchange programs enhance professional development and broaden perspectives. 1. Visiting International Faculty Program (VIF)
2. Fulbright Teacher Exchange Program
3. Inter-African Teacher Exchanges
4. Canadian Educators Exchange
5. Global Teachers Millennium Awards SEVERAL PROGRAMS 1.Visiting International Faculty Program (VIF) It is the United States' largest cultural exchange program for teachers and schools.
It is dedicated to transforming lives through international exchange of teachers.
Provides schools in the United States with world class teachers who teach a new generation of students for success in a globally integrated world.
Teachers who participate work in the U.S. for up to three years and then return home to their country to share international experiences with students and colleagues. 2. Fulbright Teacher Exchange Program Started in 1946 to promote mutual understanding between the United States and countries around the world.
For U.S. teachers, this involves a year or semester of direct exchange with a counterpart in another country teaching the same subject at the same level.
30 countries (including the Philippines) currently participate in the program. 3. Inter-African Teacher Exchanges Objective: To provide opportunities for African teachers to learn from teaching environments of other African countries.
Aimed at extending experiences and widening horizons of African teachers by encouraging exchange visits to countries outside Africa as well.
The program is envisioned to create cultural awareness and tolerance of developments in different African education environments.
(start-up year) African teachers exchange visits within a school or schools in another African country. The teacher will travel to neighboring countries to work for over a period of two weeks after which, they will engage in different activities by pairs. 4. Canadian Educator's Exchange A non-profit foundation.
One of the international educational exchanges that offer educators and their students an opportunity to broaden their understanding of one another's cultures, customs, and languages. Two Kinds of Exchange in Alberta for a Powerful Professional Development Experience 1) One-Year Exchanges
2) Two-Year Exchanges 5. Global Teachers Millennium Award Limited only to participating countries.
Committed to improving the quality of education in South Africa, Ghana, Uganda, and the U.K., and to promote partnership between North and South African countries. This program aims to: Change the lives of U.K. educators, personally and professionally by encouraging them to fulfill their aspiration and use their talents in innovative ways.
Ensure benefits for staff and pupils of U.K. schools and their local communities through the dissemination of innovative development education.
Support the aims and activities of the Link's educational programs in South Africa, Ghana, and Uganda.
Set a standard and develop a model for other similar schemes. It is the intent of the program to achieve learning outcomes among the target partners of the UK in terms of: Increased knowledge of people and life in developing countries
Better understanding of how U.K. is linked with other countries
More positive attitudes towards people and life in developing countries - challenging stereotypes and beliefs in shared humanity
More positive attitudes towards the multicultural nature of U.K. society, challenging of stereotypes, and embracing of diversity A Global Teacher in this program is described as someone who: Thinks and acts both locally and globally;
Embraces the world's rich variety of ways of life;
Understands how this world is interconnected;
Is committed to making the world a more equitable place;
Believes in education for sustainable development;
Has professional and personal skills to share, and to learn;
Brings the world to their classroom, school, and community;
Encourages dialogue and partnership between the North and the South;
Can inspire others to act as global teachers. Educational Technology
Innovative Teaching Technology for Teaching When to use technology
What technology to use
What purpose cannot be isolated from theories of teaching and learning with understanding Roles of Technology in Achieving the Goal of Learning for Understanding 1. Technology provides support to the solution of meaningful problems.
2. Technology acts as a cognitive support.
3. Technology promotes collaboration as well as independent learning. The Jasper Woodbury Problem Solving Series Little Planet Literacy Series Ribbit and the Magic Hats Programs Available on the Internet Knowledge Integration Environment (KIE) designed to promote lifelong learning and knowledge integration Global Learning and Observations to Benefit Environment (GLOBE) is a worldwide hands-on, primary- and secondary-school-based science and education program focusing on the environment, now active in 111 countries world-wide. It works to promote the teaching and learning of science, enhance environmental literacy and stewardship, and promote scientific discovery. Students and teachers collect data and perform research in collaboration with scientists from numerous international agencies, and their work is made accessible though the GLOBE website. Information Database is a large amount of information stored in a computer in an organized way that allows individual pieces of information to be found quickly, e.g. National Geographic Magazine, Encarta and Grolier in CD-ROM. Use of Technology in the Global Classroom 1. Technology Operations and Concept
Teachers should demonstrate an understanding of sound technology operations and concepts.
2. Planning and Designing Learning Environments and Experiences
Teachers plan and design effective learning environments and experiences supported by technology.
3. Teaching, Learning, and the Curriculum
Teachers implement curriculum plans that include methods and strategies for applying technology to maximize student learning.
4. Assessment and Evaluation
Teachers apply technology to facilitate a variety of effective assessment and evaluation strategies.
5. Productivity and Professional Practice
Teachers use technology to enhance their productivity and professional practice.
6. Social, Ethics, Legal, and Human Issues
Teachers understand the social, ethical, legal, and human issues surrounding the use of technology in schools and apply those principles in practice. With substantial knowledge,
skills, and appropriate attitude in the use of technology,
you can now apply innovative teaching strategies in your classroom.