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Transcript of I.T
1930-47: Development of the Two Nations Theory which led to the Partition of the Indian sub-continent on the basis of two religion Hindu and Muslim, a separate state for each religion. There were 2 countries at different ends of India which were West Pakistan and East Pakistan Language Movement 1952
Language movement day, which is also referred to as Language Martyrs day is an important date for the Bangladeshis. It was a national day of Bangladesh to honor the protests and sacrifices made by many Bangladeshis to protect Bengali as a national language. It started when The Basic Principles Committee of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan announced that Urdu should be the only state language. It sparked off a wide wave of resentment in East Bengal where the people spoke Bangla. Police declared Section 144 which banned any sort of meeting. Confronting this, students of Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka University and other political activists started a procession on February 1952. The first martyrs to die for the native language were 5 people :- Salam, Barkat, Rafique, Jabbar and Sallauddin. 3 of these people were students studying in Dhaka University. Provincial Election 1954
The United Front was a coalition of political parties in East Bengal. The coalition was composed by 4 political parties in East Bengal :- Awami Muslim League, Krishak Sramik Party, Nezam-e-Islam and Ganatantri Dal. United Front (Awami League and the Krishak Sramic Party) wins most of the votes as Sheikh Mujib was elected to the East Bengal Legislative Assembly and serving briefly as the minister for agriculture. Map After Seperation Political Development 1956-1966
The first constitution of Pakistan was adopted. In that year Pakistan becomes an Islamic Republic, with President replacing the position of Governor General. Bangla also becomes a state language along with Urdu although East Pakistanis are prohibited from any share of supremacy in the central government over adequate provisions in the new constitution. Bengali was also declared as the second official language of Pakistan on 29 February 1956.
Hussain Shaheed Shurawardy, who was the seasoned politician from East Pakistan replaced the prime minister, Chaudhury Mohammad Ali as prime minister of Pakistan. On the other hand, Sheikh Mujib joined the Colition government, a place where he had to predict the of industries, commerce, labour, Anti Corruption and Village Aid Ministry. 1957
March: Governor Gurmani declares presidential rule in West Pakistan.
May: Sheikh Mujib resigned from the cabinet in response to a resolution of the Party to strengthen the organization by working for it full-time.
June-July: Maulana Bhasani resigns as president of the Awami Muslim Leauge, later he forms the national party Awami Party (NAP)
August- Sheikh Mujib is sent on an official tour to China and the Soviet Union.
October: Suhrawardy lost support in the National Assembly and was forced to resign. Chundrigar is sworn in as the new PM.
December: Malik Feroz Khan Noon replaces Chundrigar as Prime Minister. 1958
September- Shahid Ali, Deputy Speaker of East Pakistan Assembly died. It was beleived that the cause of death were the wounds suffered 2 days ago when disorder broke out inside the assembly.
General Mohammad Ayub Khan, President Iskander Mirza revoked the constitution, dismisses the Central and Provincial governments, dissolves the Assemblies, and proclaims Martial Law in the country . All meetings and demonstrations are forbidden and political parties banned. Popular politicians are either imprisoned — including Sheikh Mujib, Maulana Bhashani, and Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan (the latter a progressive leader from NWFP and a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi) — or their activities are restricted.
Within the same month, General Ayub Khan exiles Iskander Mirza to the Great Britain before assuming all powers, along with the rank of Field Marshal. 1960
January - Elections for Basic Democracies (BD) members were carried out this month according to the presidential plan. The 80,000 elected BDs would decide whom they want to be the ruler.
February- Ayub Khan is elected President for a five-year term by 80,000 elected BD members.
April: Lt Gen Azam Khan becomes governor of East Pakistan. 1962
February: Once again Sheikh Mujib was arrested under the Public Security Act.
June- Martial law ends. The ban on political parties is lifted. Sheikh Mujib was freed. Later the Pakistani Muslim League was split in 2 groups- Council and Convention. General Ayub Backed the Convention Muslim leauge. 1963-
January: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, former Minister for Basic Democracies is appointed Foreign Minister on death of Mohammad Ali Bogra. 1965
The government charged Sheikh Mujib with sedition and making objectionable statements. He was sentenced to a one year jail term. He was later released on an order of the High Court.
Ayub Khan is elected President for a second five year term defeating Fatema Jinnah.
August: Hidden away from public eyes, Indian and Pakistani armies have been engaged in secret conflicts over Kashmir boundary for the past two months.
September: The second India-Pakistan war takes place. 1966 Six Points movement-
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was elected party president. Afterwards, Awami League declared the six point movement.
Before a convention of opposition parties held in Lahore, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman puts forward his demand for a federal governing system with full autonomy for the two wings of Pakistan:
1. A Federation of Pakistan based on the Lahore Resolution, with a parliamentary form of government based on the supremacy of a directly elected legislature and representation on the basis of population.
2. The federal government to be responsible only for defense and foreign affairs.
3. A federal reserve system designed to prevent the flight of capital from one region to the other.
4. Taxation to be the responsibility of each federating unit, with necessary provisions for funding the federal goverment.
5. Each unit to retain its own foreign exchange earnings as well as the power to negotiate foreign trade and aid.
6. Each unit to maintain its own paramilitary forces. 1968
The Agartala Conspiracy Case is made public. It involves Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and thirty-five other Bengalis who allegedly wanted to separate East Pakistan and establish an independent Bengal, with Indian assistance.
Thomas William, a British lawyer and a member of the British Parliament, files a writ petition in Dhaka High Court on behalf of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman challenging the legality of the formation of the tribunal. He is assisted by Abdus Salam Khan, Ataur Rahman Khan, and others.
The Agartala Conspiracy Case unites the East Pakistani sentiments against discrimination in all fronts, including positions in the Government and the armed forces especially coveted by the middle class. The mass uprising of East Pakistan in 1969
The 1969 uprising in East Pakistan was a democratic political movement. The Uprising Consisted of a series of mass demonstrations and sporadic conflicts between government armed forces and the demonstrator.
4 January: The all Party Student action committee put forth its 11 point agenda.
7–8 January: Formation of a political coalition named Democratic Action Committee (DAC) to restore democracy.
24 January: Matiur, a teenager activist is gunned down by the police.
15 February: Seargent Jahurul Haq, one of the convicts of Agartala Conspiracy Case, is assassinated in the prison of Kurmitola Cantonment.
21 February: Withdrawal of Agartala Conspiracy Case.
23 February: Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was accorded a grand reception, where he was given the title Bangabandhu (The friend of Bengal).
10–13 March: Ayub Khan calls for a round table meeting with the opposition.
24 March: Ayub Khan handed over power to General Yaya Khan, the army chief of staff 1970 General Elections
The Awami League, under Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, wins an overwhelming election victory in East Pakistan. The government in West Pakistan refuses to recognize the results, leading to rioting. In the other hand a cyclone hits East Pakistan - up to 500,000 people are killed. East Pakistan
West Pakistan Ayub Khan 1971 Liberation
Sheikh Mujib arrested and taken to West Pakistan. In exile, Awami League leaders proclaim the independence of the province of East Pakistan on 26th March. The new country is called Bangladesh. Just fewer than 10 million Bangladeshis flee to India as troops from West Pakistan are defeated with Indian assistance. INDIA Additional Dates-
1972 - Sheikh Mujib returns, becomes prime minister. He begins a programme of nationalising key industries in an attempt to improve living standards, but with little success.
1977 - General Ziaur Rahman assumes the presidency. Islam is adopted in the constitution.
1979 - Martial law is lifted following elections, which Zia's Bangladesh National Party (BNP) wins.
1981 - Zia is assassinated during abortive military coup. He is succeeded by Abdus Sattar.
2000- Unesco officially declares 21st February as the International Mother Language day, a proud and Honorable day for all Bangladeshis to remember. 1970 General Elections
1970 - The Awami League, under Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, wins an overwhelming election victory in East Pakistan. The government in West Pakistan refuses to recognize the results, leading to rioting. Although with a lot going ona Cyclone hits East Pakistan and makes a huge impact- up to 500,000 people are killed. Women during the War
During the Liberation war in 1971 hundreds of thousands of women were raped by members of the Pakistani Military and Militias that supported them. Statistics say that girls from the age of eight to grandmothers of seventy-five suffered attacks. The abuses were only stopped when the Pakistani army was defeated after the intervention of the Indian armed forces.