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Transcript of Jericho
Amy, & Lily Jericho THE BIBLE STORY
Courtesy of the Brick Testament The End. Now really… The Story of Jericho PHYSIOGRAPHY:
Jordan River Valley
Northeast of Dead Sea @ 230 m above sea level
Runoff supplies underground reservoir
Plant species more African than Asian
Oasis, "City of Palms"
Early Bronze Diet: barley, grapes, figs, lentils, chickpeas, onions, pomegranates, & dates Jericho the City SHOW FILM BY DR. HUNTSMAN Jericho Today John Garstang KENYON Q&A
DESSERT Kathleen Kenyon
1952-1959 The original EB wall was rebuilt no less than sixteen times
>>difficulty of excavation Minimalist POV:
Jericho, symbolic victory
Curse, sets up story of Hiel
Introduction of Rahab’s family
Benjaminite ritual, shrine of Gilgal
13th century – no evidence remaining
11th/12th century – small conquest Bartlett | | | | | | | | | | | | | Jericho: The Dig 2012 1952-1958 1930- “It is a sad fact that of the town walls of the Late Bronze Age, within which period the attack by the Israelites must fall by any dating, not a trace remains.” http://faculty.vassar.edu/jolott/old_courses/class%20of%2051/jericho/garstang.html Middle to Late Neolithic
Foundation of “Megaron”.
#1: 3,000 BCE
Wall enclosed 4 acres, including the city and the Spring.
#2: 2,500 BCE
Same general plan, added thickness
#3: 1,800 BCE
Larger, enclosed 9 acres.
#4: THE wall. ≈ 1,407 BCE Four Cities There were two walls.
Outer wall was 6’ thick.
Inner wall was higher, and 12’ thick.
Walls had poor foundation, and houses built all along the interior face.
Jericho lies on a fault line.
Walls fell outward, and buildings were leveled.
Nearly identical destruction in Joshua 3 and 16, and in 1267 and 1927 BCE.
Walls Fell because of rhythmic stomping of Israelites?
EARTHQUAKE. (Sent by God, of course) Plus some Israelite fire. The Fabled Wall(s) "At Jericho two worlds meet, the world which lives for us still in the imperishable records of the Old Testament, and the world of modern scientific research which lifts it out of the darkness of semi-legend and sets it in the full light of history." (The Story of Jericho, 157-58)
John Garstang truly was seeking mostly for proof of the Biblical narrative. He didn’t say that outright, but he doesn’t present any other possibilities. Biblical Bias? I Kings 6:1
And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign… that he began to build the house of the Lord. Chronology 480 years?
≈ 461-499, rounding based on the 40 yr. measuring system
480 - 40 = 440
Israelite sojourn in the Wilderness post-Jericho
“Fourth year of Solomon’s reign…”
≈ 967 B.C.
440 years before 967
≈ 1407 B.C.
Give or take: 1426 -1385 B. C. Excavated: 1930-1936 333AD The Pilgrim of Bordeaux Identifies Jericho & distinguishes between the old and new testament settlements 333 AD 1800- References & Excavations 1841 - Robinson & Smith suspect
Tell es-Sultan to be Jericho
1868 - Excavation by Capt. Charles
1880's - Accepted by scholars as Jericho
1907-1909 & 1911 - Excavation by
Carl Wartzinger & Ernst Sellin Scholars date the exodus & conquest . . . 15th (Garstang) or 13th century BC...
Kenyon claims no archaeological evidence for settlement in Jericho either period How many, or sequence of events is unknown Remnants of a Neolithic community...
absence of pottery Late Bronze
1400 BC resettled... Tombs: shaft tombs, bones & artifacts
Preserved & protected by natural gas?
High mortality & destruction
Ash layer MB Age Kenyon found remains of 1 LB foundation...
Suggests last occupation in 14th century Biblical perspective:
Suggests Habiru = small band, or tribe "But as to what caused the walls to fall down flat, we have no factual evidence. We can guess that it was an earthquake, which the excavations have shown to have destroyed a number of the earlier walls, but this is only conjecture. It would have been very natural for the Israelites to have regarded such a visitation as divine intervention on their behalf, as indeed it can be regarded.
Suggests that the city was abandoned for some time
Joshua curses city
Bryant Wood Stratification:
Erosion PROBLEMS WITH ISRAELITIES
Dating Ash layer found- over earthquake layer
The destruction was complete. Walls and floors were blackened or reddened by fire, and every room was filled with fallen bricks, timbers, and household utensils; in most rooms the fallen debris was heavily burnt, but the collapse of the walls of the eastern rooms seems to have taken place before they were affected by the fire.“ ~Kenyon
Found Burnt Grain Stratification:
Mud Bricks built on Revetment/ Retaining Wall
Walls came tumbling down
Mud bricks fell on outside of Revetment wall
Slope up the wall Stratification:
Red Mud Bricks
Erosion Evidence We Have
2010: Avraham Dafna
Walls didn’t fall, but were surrendered
n-f-l can mean “surrender” instead of “collapse”
2006: Shubert Spero
Soldiers unprepared Different Modern Explanations Kenyon’s date of 1550 B.C.E based on a lack of pottery
Cypriot Bichrome- red and black paint
Garstang found, Kenyon ignored
Pots found- Late Bronze Age I- 1400 B.C.E. Pottery