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The Cromwellian Plantation

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Ms. Mc Caffrey

on 28 December 2016

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Transcript of The Cromwellian Plantation

Background and Causes
The Condition of the Country
The Plantation in Action
How Successful was the Cromwellian Plantation?
The Down Survey
ii) Many of the Catholic landowners who were dispossessed in Cromwell's plantations were hiding in woods and hills. They became outlaw bands, called Tories, who attacked the settlers. About 50,000 Irish people went to the Caribbean Islands where plantations of tobaccoand sugar were being developed.

iii) Catholics remained on as tenants and labourers

iv) Property and trade in cities and towns were mainly in the hands of Protestants. Catholics were forbidden to live in towns - instead Gaelic Irish had to live outside town walls in areas which became known as Irishtown.
How Successful was the Plantation?
v) For the next 200 years, power and wealth in Ireland remained in the hands of Protestants, reinforced by the penal laws which kept Catholics under control.
How Successful was the Cromwellian Plantation?
The Cromwellian plantation was on a larger scale than previous plantations and it therefore affected many more people.
The Cromwellian Plantation
In 1641, a rebellion broke out in Ireland. This began with a massacre of Protestants in Ulster.
Probably 12,000 out of 40,000 Protestants in Ulster were killed, even though much greater numbers were reported in England.
The rebellion in Ireland became entangled with the civil war that broke out in England around the same time.
In England, King Charles I and the Royalists fought the Parliamentarians.
The parliamentary army, led by Oliver Cromwell, defeated the king's forces and the king was executed.
Cromwell then sailed for Ireland to avenge the massacre of Protestants and to put down the rebellion.
Very soon, he and his generals had conquered the country.
After Cromwell's campaign, Ireland's towns and economy were in a ruined .
Many thousands of prisoners of war, priests, widows, orphans and beggars were sent to the West Indies to work on sugar plantations.
More than 30,000 soldiers were allowed to leave Ireland to enlist in European armies not at war with England.
The English parliament owed 3.5 million, some of it to adventurers who had provided loans to pay for the civil war, and the rest to pay 35,000 soldiers who had not been paid.
Cromwell's large scale plantation was organised to pay off these debts and to subdue the country even more.
Cromwell's aims were to:
Crush the Catholic religion
Punish the rebel leaders
Pay off the parliaments debts to the adventurers and soldiers.
Cromwell and the English parliament confiscated three quarters of the land of Ireland.
The Act of Settlement of 1652 punished the rebels severely
Those who fought against parliament - 'rebel' landowners - lost all their lands.
Those who could not prove their loyalty to parliament lost their land and were 'transplanted' to Connacht and Co. Clare.
They were given some land there in part compensation. They were told to 'remove themselves their servants and their goods' to hell or to Connacht by 1 May 1654.
While Catholic landowners were moved, the Catholic farmers and labourers were left in their places.
Sir William Petty, an army doctor offered to survey and map the confiscated lands.
He employed soldiers to carry out the measuring and mapping. His survey was called The Down Survey.
By the time he was finished Ireland was the most accurately mapped country in Europe.
Petty estimated 11 million acres had been confiscated.
The land was divided between adventurers, who got most of the land, and soldiers.
Some of the soldiers had no interest in the land, so they sold it.
i) The plantation failed to crush the Catholic religion. But the main losers were Catholic landowners. Catholic landowners in Ulster Munster and Leinster lost most of their land. They were replaced by Protestant landowners, who became new landlord class. In 1641, Catholics owned three-fifths of the land of Ireland. By 1665, they owned only one-sixth of the land. Catholic landowners were now mainly confined to Connacht and Co. Clare.
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