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The Treaty of Versailles
Transcript of The Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles
By: Bruno Diaz, Amarantha Lopez, Michael Vatalare, Valeria Morales
America Gives Allies the Edge
1. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.
2. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants.
3. The removal, of all economic barriers and the establishment of equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance.
4. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety.
5. Free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustments of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined.
6. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance also of every kind that she may need and may herself desire. The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid test of their good will, of their comprehension of her needs as distinguished from their own interests, and of their intelligent and unselfish sympathy.
7. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations. No other single act will serve as this will serve to restore confidence among the nations in the laws which they have themselves set and determined for the government of their relations with one another. Without this healing act the whole structure and validity of international law is forever impaired.
8. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine, which has unsettled the peace of the world for nearly fifty years, should be righted, in order that peace may once more be made secure in the interest of all
9. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.
10. The people of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development.
11. Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea; and the relations of the several Balkan states to one another determined by friendly counsel along historically established lines of allegiance and nationality; and international guarantees of the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the several Balkan states should be entered into.
12. The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development, and the Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international guarantees.
13. An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant.
14. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.
Wilson at the Paris Peace Conference
Wilson's main idea was "peace without victory"
America Rejects the Treaty
1. Now that that the news of Americans entering WWI emerged to help the Allies, Germany began using unrestricted submarine warfare once again before Americans can have impact the outcome.
2. Because Germany began this tactic again, the Allies counterattacked with
Shipping losses decreased sharply making Germany's plan to fail.
merchant ships sail together protected by warships
1. Make no secret diplomatic agreements.
2. Allow freedom of the seas in peace and war.
3. Remove as many economic trade barriers as possible between countries.
4. Reduce stockpile of military armaments to the lowest point needed for domestic safety.
5. Adjust colonial claims, giving more weight to the views of the colonized people.
6. Evacuate and restore Russian territories seized during the war.
7. Protect and Restore Belgium's sovereignty.
8. Restore French territory and settle the debate over Alsace-Lorraine.
9. Adjust Italy's boundaries according to the nationalities of populations living there.
10. Allow the peoples of the former Austro-Hungarian empire to choose their own government- A.K.A. self-determination.
11. Redraw boundaries of Balkan states based on nationalities and historical allegiances.
12. Separate the Ottoman Empire into independent countries according to nationality; guarantee all nations access to the Dardanelles.
13. Restore and protect Poland as a sovereign state with access to the sea.
14. Establish an association of nations to provide collective security and to ensure peace- A.K.A. The League of Nations.
Wilson faces troubles when he arrives back from Versailles.
3. On land, Germany was prepared to attack Paris. With the help of French General Ferdinand Foch and American General John J. Pershing, the Allies were able to withstand the Central attacks.
Americans from European backgrounds felt the treaty was not fair.
-German Americans thought it was too harsh to blame Germany for the cause of war.
-Irish Americans criticized the failure to create an independent Ireland.
Life of John J. Pershing
Most important issue Wilson faced was that the treaty had to be submitted to the
Senate Foreign Relations Committee and be ratified or approved by the
Senate. In both parties and even in his own Democratic Party faced opposition.
"Peace Without Victory" speech January 22,1917
"Only a tranquil Europe can be a stable Europe.... [There] must be peace without victory.... Victory would mean peace forced upon the loser, a victor's terms imposed upon the vanquished. It would be accepted in humiliation... and would leave a sting, a resentment, a bitter memory upon which terms of peace would rest, not permanently, but only as upon quicksand."
There were many American heroes of the war that helped the Allies win the war.
To promote his ideas Woodrow Wilson created the Fourteen Points. The Fourteen Points promoted openness, encouraging independence, and supporting freedom. Within these points are the ideas of self-determination and the League of Nations.
Wilson's idealism did not inspire the Allied leaders at the peace conference
-Allies created a League of Nations
To the Peace Conference.
In early 1919 the Allies decided to hold a peace conference in Versailles. Wilson believed this was too important to be left in the hands of lesser politicians. He felt his ideas will help promote peace in Europe so he crossed the Atlantic to represent the United States in the conference, making him the first president to do so.
Wilson Angers Republicans
Wilson did not invite any republicans to go with him including Henry Cabot Lodge who he disliked intensely. This decision angered the republicans who had control over Congress. This will cause the republicans to not vote for the treaty.
Senators believed that the United States shouldn't get involved with world politics or world organizations. They particularly disliked Article 10 of the League covenant.
The "Doughboys" fought in the Second Battle of Marne and the Battle of Catigny.
Alvin York of Tennessee and his men, against all odds, took down a German machine-gun nest. Because of his bravery, he earned a Congressional Medal of Honor.
The 369th Infantry Regiment was an African-American unit that also sacrificed their lives in the war. They earned the
Croix de Guerre,
a French award for bravery.
By 1918, with the help of Americans, the German and Austro-Hungarian armies were tired and unable to fight any longer. On November 11, 11:11am, Germany surrendered and the war was over. Over 37 million people were killed, leaving it to the peacemakers to justify the costs, including Wilson and his Fourteen Points.
THE WAR ENDS
Allied leaders wanted to make Germany weaker so they would
never threaten Europe again,so
they made them pay for
Article 10 called for mutual defense by the signers of the treaty a pledge that each nation would "respect and preserve...the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all the Members of the League."
- British prime minister David Lloyd-George, French premier Georges Clemenceau and other allies did Not listen to Wilson's Fourteen Points and they were not included in the treaty.
- Wilson refused to compromise. So, the other delegates voted to make the League of Nations part of the treaty.
-In the end, the peace treaties created as many problems as it solved.
The Creation of the Fourteen Points.
a larger group of senators, led by Henry Cabot Lodge
were opposed to how the treaty was written. Some wanted small changes while others wanted larger ones. They argued the language of the article was to vague and contradicted the power of the Congress to declare war.
What to Do Now
November 1919, Wilson did not want to make any compromises with the Senate. Therefore after three tries to vote upon the treaty with some, little or no change at all, failed and treaty was not passed.