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Ch. 13 Sociolinguistics and Education
Transcript of Ch. 13 Sociolinguistics and Education
"Although spoken English doesn't obey the rules of written language, a person who doesn't know the rules thoroughly is at a great disadvantage."
--Marilyn von Savant
Consequences for Education
Direct Instruction (Bereiter & Engleman)
What is the "deficit hypothesis" and how does it relate to AAE and education?
(1) What are the perceived linguistic needs of minority and majority language students in the classroom?
Inner circle: "English is used for almost all functions by the majority of the population" (W&F 2015, p. 356)
Outer circle: "non-native but institutionalized uses of English" (W&F, p. 356)
Expanding circle: "English is learned as a foreign language, and in which it plays an increasingly important role in economic development" (W&F, p. 356)
What to do?
What is a code? (Ch. 4, 14)
Elaborated code vs. Restricted code:
African American Vernacular English
What linguistic characteristics does AAVE demonstrate?
Origins of AAVE:
1. Language ideologies affect educational programs
2. While linguists agree that no variety is inherently 'better', power differentials result from the prestige associated with certain varieties
3. Social, emotional and educational disadvantages result from this differential
Elaborated code (formal code): standard grammar; complex
Restricted code (public code): non-standard grammar; less complex; idioms
Who has access to these codes?
What social and educational issues arise from differences in access to these codes?
Which of these may be problematic either social or educationally?
(1)a. Anglicist hypothesis: not specific to African Americans, rather southerners
(1)b. Neo-anglicist hypothesis: AAVE maintains some characteristics of African languages mixed with English
(2) Creole: "variety of English which originated quite independently of SE" (W, pg. 366)
(3) Another variety of English, just like all other varieties
Why might AAVE and SE speakers alike reject this?
What evidence is there that these children have language?
Should we be concerned about their language? Intelligence? Ability to reason? Future?
Is this problem isolated to AAE speakers today?
What responsibility do the following entities have in the education of children?
Public school district
(2) What are the perceived potential pros and cons of bi/multilingual education for minority and majority language students?
(3) In what ways have minority languages successfully been used in the classroom?
(4) What might be the root of the absurd difference between our perception of elite vs. immigrant bilingualism?
How can the elite use English (or any majority language) to limit the power of minority speakers?