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PSYA3 Revision

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by

Megan Humphrey

on 16 January 2013

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Transcript of PSYA3 Revision

PSYA3 The Revision AGGRESSION EATING Studies Anorexia Nervosa Eating Behaviours Evolutionary Explanations Biological Explanations Studies Social Psychological Approaches Studies Disorders of Sleep Sleep States SLEEP Oswald - sleep is important for restoration (associated SWS with growth hormones & REM with brain recovery.)
Horne - micro-sleep can allow physiological recovery SLT - Bandura. Modelling! Bobo dolls
Deindividuation - Zimbardo
Crowd behaviour - collective mindset (Le Bon) eg French Revolution
Institutional aggression - situational or individualistic? Iraq atrocities, Zimbardo again. XYY - Theilgaard said no. Gacy was XYY
Hormones - testosterone, not always violence
Challenge hypothesis - defence of reproductive investment
Neural - Gage. Amygdala & frontal cortex. Centered on reproduction - domestic violence
Xenophobia as an evolutionary adaptation
Self defence, predators etc within the animal kingdom. Less than 85% normal weight
Refusal to eat
Amenorrhea
Usually adolescent onset
Intrusive fear of fatness
Predominantly female patients
Unduly concerned with weight and shape Neural mechanisms
ventromedial hypothalamus - inhibits feeding
lateral hypothalamus - produces feeding
neuropeptide - neurotransmitter, induces eating
ghrelin - boosts appetite, also response to stress O R M S Sociocultural Explanation Psychodynamic Explanation Biological Explanation Evolutionary Explanation Biological Rhythms Biological Explanations Only God gets how Castiel feels; Gabriel believes life seems bloody good. Ogden
Gibson
Garg
Herman & Mack
Cummings
Frost
Garcia
Berstein & Webster
Lee
Surbey
Bruch
Guisinger Balthazar likes zebras; the Winchesters won't help. Bandura
Le Bon
Zimbardo
Theilgaard
Wagner et al
Wingfield et al
Harlow Sam must realise - only helping Gabriel trick Jesus will move God. Siffre (1972)
Morgan (1995)
Russell et al (1980)
Oswald (1980)
Horne (1988)
Gardner (1988)
Tripp
Jouvet (1967)
Webb (1982)
Meddis (1975)
Gregory et al (2006) Circadian Infradian Ultradian Last about one day Light Sleep/Wake cycle 25 hours naturally SCN Pineal gland Melatonin Lasting longer than one day Menstruation oestrogen progesterone light pheromones Lasts less than one day Stages of sleep Stages 1 & 2 - shallow
Stages 3 & 4 - slow wave sleep
Stage 5 - REM Full cycle - 90 mins Evolutionary Webb - energy conservation
Meddis - ecological niche (eg foraging, predator/prey status) Insomnia Sleep apnoea Narcolepsy Sleep walking prolonged & abnormal inability to sleep. Secondary insomnia usually associated with other illness eg anxiety. Obstructive & central. Want of breath - trouble breathing. Breathing passages are obstructed, causing abrupt waking. CPAP. 1/2000. Cataplexy, hypnogogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis. Move directly into REM, causing cataplexy. Somnambulism, common in children. Stress & anxiety. Freud suggests regression. Evolutionary explanations
born with taste receptors
babies prefer sweet foods Behavioural explanations
imitating parents (Ogden)
Operant conditioning to encourage eating
Media influence Serotonin hypothesis
carbs contain tryptophan which makes serotonin
Garg et al Dieting
boundary model
normal eaters eat until satiety
restricted eaters bypass satiety Evolutionary explanations
preference for meat (rich in energy)
sex for meat hypothesis
prestige for hunters
neophobia
taste aversion
embryo protection hypothesis Media influences - unrealistic body image; emphasis on dieting; imitation of celebrity role models Contrast with China - Western diet is high in fat foods that result in guilt Bruch - originates in early childhood Parents control child's eating patterns, feeding them when they are not hungry etc. Increases reliance on parents, producing feelings of helplessness later in adolescence Psychosexual immaturity Genetic - 55% concordance rate MZ twins (Holland et al)
Neural - fewer serotonin receptors; premature birth Reproductive suppression - weight control delays sexual maturation (amenhorrea) at times when environment is not conducive to child's survival
Adapted to flee famine - forces hunter-gatherer behaviour (high levels of activity)
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