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AP Art History

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Erica Houdyshell

on 4 April 2013

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Transcript of AP Art History

Chapter 26: From the Mongols
To The Modern China and Korea Guan Daosheng, Bamboo Groves in Mist and Rain -Yuan Dynasty, 1308
-Section of a handscroll
-The bamboo plant was a symbol of ideal Chinese gentleman
- Bamboo depicting its branches and leaves approximated the cherished art of calligraphy
- Guan achieved a misty atmosphere by restricting the ink tones to a narrow range and blurring bamboo thickets in the distance suggesting fog Wu Zhen, Stalks of Bamboo by a Rock - Yuan Dynasty, 1347
- Ink scroll on paper
- The difference between Guans is that the individual bamboo plants are clearly differentiated and artist revels in the abstract patterns the stalks and leaves form
- Bamboo plants compliment to calligraphic beauty in chinese black characters and red seals so prominently featured on the scroll
-Bamboo and inscriptions gave him the opportunity to display proficiency with the brush Huang Gong Wang, Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains -Yuan Dynasty, 1347-1350
-Section of a handscroll, ink on paper
-First done in one sitting, then added on throughout years when motivated.
-Built up textured mountains with richly layered brush strokes
-Interweaving, dry brushstrokes and placing dry strokes over wet ones, darker strokes over lighter ones with ink-washed accents
-rhythmic play of brush and ink renders the landscapes inner structure/momentum Temple Vase -Yuan Dynasty, 1351
-White porcelain with cobalt blue under glaze
-A tall temple vase formed from the jingdezhen kilns
-Inscription says the vases together with an incense burner, made up an alter set donated to a Buddhist temple as a prayer for peace, protection, and prosperity.
-One of the earliest examples of fine porcelain.
-Decorations consist of bands of floral motifs containing auspicious symbols including a phoenixes and a lower part of the neck and dragons on the main body of the neck and vessel
-motifs suggest donors high status
-Dragon and Phoenix symbolize the emperor and empress.
-The dragon represents Yang, the active principle of masculine energy while the Phoenix may represent Yin, the principle of passive feminine energy. Wangshi Yuan, Garden of the Master of the Fishing Nets -Suzhou, China, Ming Dynasty, 16th century and later
-Gardens are often scenic arrangements of natural and artificial elements, intended to reproduce the irregularities of uncultivated nature.
-Verandas and pavilions rise on pillars above the water, and stone bridges, paths, and causeways encourage wandering through ever changing vistas of trees, flowers, rocks, and the reflections in the pond. Liu Yuan, Lingering Garden -Suzhou, China, Ming Dynasty, 16th century and later
-The stones were dredged from nearby Lake Tai and then shaped by sculptors to create and even more natural look
-The Ming gardens were the pleasure retreats of high officials and the landed gentry sanctuaries where the wealthy could commune with nature and all its representative forms Shang Xi Guan Yu, Captures General Pang De -Ming Dynasty, 1430
-Hanging Scroll, ink and colors on silk
-Represents an episode from the Tumultuous third century
-Inspired from one of the great Chinese novels "The Romance of Three Kingdoms"
-The painting depicts the historical Guan Yu renowned
for his loyalty to his emperor and his military valor, being presented with the captured enemy general Pang De
-Shang Xi uses colors to focus attention on Guan Yu and his attendance, who stand out sharply from the ink landscape.
-He contrasts the victors armor and bright garments with the vulnerability of his captive (naked humiliation) Shen Zhou, Lofty Mount Lu -Ming Dynasty, 1467
-Hanging Scroll, ink on paper
-A birthday gift for one of his teachers, bears a long poem he wrote in his teacher's honor
-Shen Zhou has never seen Mount Lu, but chooses subject because he wished the lofty mountain peaks to express grandeur of his teacher's virtue and character
- The artist suggests the immense scale of Mount Lu by placing a tiny figure at the bottom center of the painting, sketched in lightly and partly obscured by a rock Dong Qichang, Dwelling in the Qingbian Mountains -Ming Dynasty, 1617
-Hanging Scroll, ink on paper
-Belongs to a southern school the artist admired
-Dong Qichang was an innovator, especially in his treatment of the towering mountains, where shaded masses of rocks alternate with flat, blank bands, flattening the composition in creating highly expressive and abstract patterns.
-Some critics have called Dong Qichang the first modernist painter foreshadowing developments in the nineteenth century European landscape painting. Wen Shu, Carnations and Garden Rock -Ming Dynasty, 1627
-Fan, ink and colors on gold paper
-Example of Chinese arch shaped fan painting, a format imported from Japan
-artist paints on flat paper, when painting is completed it is mounted on sticks and folded like a fan
-Best fan paintings were never actually used as fans but were purchased by collectors and stored in albums
-Using delicate brush strokes and a restricted palette, she brilliantly communicated the fragility of the red flowers, contrasting them with the solidity of the brown rock\
-Creates a quiet mood of contemplation Shitao, Man in a House Beneath A Cliff -Qing Dynasty, Late Seventeenth Century
-Album Leaf, Ink and colors on paper
-Surrounded by the surging energy of free floating colored dots and multiple sinuous contour lines
-Unlike traditional literati painters, Shitao did not so much depict the landscapes appearance as animate it, molding the forces running through it. Giuseppe Castiglione, Auspicious Objects -Qing Dynasty, 1724
-Hanging Scroll, Ink and colors on silk
-Most prominent European artist in the Qing court who went by the name Lang Shining in China
-Hybrid Italian Chinese painting style
-Painted in honor of Yongzheng emperor's birthday
-emphasis on a single source of light creates consistent shadows, and his interests in three dimensional volume, are unmistakably European but the impact of the Italian artist of Chinese literati painting is equally clear, especially in the composition of the branches and leaves of the overhanging pine trees in the incorporation of the red seal at the upper left
-The white eagle, the pine tree, the rocks, and red mushroom-like plants are all traditional Chinese symbols
-The eagle connotes imperial status, courage, and military achievement. The evergreen pines and rocks connote longevity. Ye Yushan and Others, Rent Collection Courtyard -1965, Clay approximately 100 yards long with life size figures
-Yushan and a team of sculptors grimly depicted the old times before the People's Republic
-Peasants, worn and bent by toil, bring their taxes to the courtyard of the merciless, plundering landlord.
-When the work was first exhibited the artist's names were not revealed. The anonymity of those who depicted the event was significant in itself. The second message was that only collective action could affect the transformations of the People's Republic. Xu Bing, A Book From Heaven -1988, Movable type prints and books
-The work presents an enormous number of wood block printed texts and characters that look like Chinese writing, but that the artist invented. Producing them required an intimate knowledge of actual characters and an extensive training in block carving.
-It has been interpreted both as a stinging critique of the meaninglessness of contemporary political language and as a commentary on the illegibility of the past. Chong Son, Kumgang Mountains -Chosen Dynasty, 1734
-Hanging Scroll, Ink and colors on paper
-Chong Son invoked an actual scene, and approach known in Korea as "true view" painting
- Used sharper, darker versions of the fibrous brush strokes favored by most Chinese literati in order to represent the bright crystalline appearance of the mountains and to emphasize their spiky forms. Song Su-Nam, Summer Trees -1983, Ink on paper
-Owes a great deal to the Abstract Expressionist Movement of the 20th century and to the work of American painters.
-Song used ink on paper, the preferred medium in East Asian literati. He forsook, however, the traditional emphasis on brushstrokes to explore the subtle tonal variations made possible by broad stresses of ink wash.
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