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Hitler and Nazi Germany
Transcript of Hitler and Nazi Germany
Served in WWI and went into politics after the war
Joined the German Workers’ Party
By 1921, Hitler took total control of the Party and renamed it the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NAZI for short) In 1923, Hitler tried to overthrow the German government but failed in the Beer Hall Putsch Hitler was thrown in jail and wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle) The book outlined his views on the world Anti-Semitic, extreme German nationalism, and anticommunism Rise of Nazism Hitler realized that the NAZI party would have to come to power legally By 1929, there were 800,000 member of the Nazi Party in the Reichstag (the German parliament.) People liked the Nazi’s because of the bad economy in Germany Hitler promised a New Germany
He stressed national pride, national honor, and militarism Victory of Nazism By 1930, the Nazi’s were in power in Germany
More and more Germans looked to Hitler for leadership
President Hindenburg sensed that Hitler’s popularity was rising and allowed him to become chancellor and gave him permission to create a new government The Enabling Act was passed which gave the government the power to ignore the constitution for four years This Act allowed Hitler to become dictator, but legally!!!!
Hitler brought all institutions under Nazi control
He set up large prison camps called concentration camps
Anyone opposed to the regime was forced to go to the camps All political parties were abolished
By 1939, all German young people were expected to join the Hitler youth Upon entering, each took an oath: “In the presence of this blood banner (Nazi flag), which represents our Father, I swear to devote all my energies and my strength to the savior of our country, Adolf Hitler. I am willing and ready to give up my life for him, so help me God.” All German youth were literally forced to join
All activities were competitive and they were encouraged to fight and do heroic deeds Members of the Hitler Youth had uniforms and took part in activities The Nazi State 1933-1939 Hitler wanted to develop an Aryan racial state that would dominate Europe and possibly the world for generations to come Aryan was a term used to identify people speaking Indo-European languages Hitler misused this term and literally wanted to create another Roman Empire Hitler said, “ We must develop organizations in which an individual’s entire life can take place. Then every activity and every need of every individual will be regulated by the collectivity represented by the party. There is no longer any arbitrary will, there are no longer any free realms in which the individual belongs to himself….The time of personal happiness is over.”
The State and Terror Nazi Germany created the Schutzstaffeln, of the SS
Originally Hitler’s personal bodyguards
Under the direction of Heinrich Himmler, the SS controlled all aspects of the police forces Based on two principles: Terror and Ideology
Terror included murder, concentration camps, execution squads and death camps
Economic Polices Hitler put people back to work through public works projects and grants to private construction companies He also embarked on a massive rearmament program to stimulate
the economy Unemployment dropped, and the depression seemed to be ending Anti-Semitic Policies Once in power, the Nazi Party enacted programs against Jewish people In 1935, the Nazis passed the “Nuremberg laws,” which prevented Jews from being German citizens, forbade marriages between Jews and German citizens, and required Jews to wear yellow Stars of David and to carry identification cards saying they were Jewish. On the night of November 9, 1938, Nazis burned Jewish synagogues and destroyed thousands of Jewish businesses They killed at least 100 people and sent thirty thousand Jewish men to concentration This night was called Kristallnacht (“night of shattered glass”). 6.After Kristallnacht, Jews were barred from all public transportation, schools, and hospitals 7.They could not own, manage, or work in a retail store. 8. Jews were encouraged to leave Germany