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Poverty-causes, effects and solutions

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Jasmine Hornby

on 3 June 2013

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Transcript of Poverty-causes, effects and solutions

POVERTY Types of Poverty Absolute
People are absolutely impoverished if the minimum amounts of food, clothing and shelter necessary for survival absorb all of their income, and they live a razor’s edge existence. Over three billion people — live on less than $2.50 a day, this is absolute poverty.
At least 80% of humanity lives on less than $10 a day. Relative
Relative poverty is a poverty measure based on a poor standard of living or a low income relative to the rest of society. Unlike absolute poverty, it does not necessarily imply that physical human necessities of nutrition, health and shelter cannot be met; instead it suggests that the lack of access to many of the goods and services expected by the rest of the contemporary society leads to social exclusion and damaging results for the individuals and families in relative poverty.
The poorest 40 percent of the world’s population accounts for 5 percent of global income. The richest 20 percent accounts for three-quarters of world income.
In Australia the poverty line is earning less than $13,000 per annum. How is Poverty Measured?
Poverty is measured by Gross Domestic Product. Which
is the total value of goods produced and services provided in a country during one year. To measure poverty all the money made by the country is then divided by the number of people in their country/continent. Effects of poverty Causes can become effects through the downward spiral of poverty Government Corruption Not getting an education from generation to generation only exacerbate poverty. Again making the poverty circle inevitable and difficult to get out of. Almost a billion people entered the 21st century unable to read a book or sign their names. The number of children out of education worldwide is121 million. Men are more likely to get an education in a third world country, rather than a woman. Although with men getting an education this is only teaching one person something, if a woman was to get an education not only would she be taught, but her whole family will be taught and this would influence a smarter community. Social Services Health is a huge factor effecting poverty, without enough money and access for immunisations people are more likely to get sick. This can lead to complications such as being out of work and possibly passing the sickness down to children and other family members. This creates a cycle of poverty. There are 2.5 billion children in the world and 1 billion live in poverty. That's one in every 2 children living in poverty. Here is a map of countries dealing with malaria. Over population Natural Occurrences War not only causes poverty it also fuels and continues the poverty cycle. If the government invests in health, education and infrastructure there wouldn't be poverty. The result is that the countries remain stuck in extreme poverty, unable to attract foreign direct investment or achieve a large boost in agriculture productivity and advance to the second stage of economic development. Instead of war. Below is a pie chart on how much each country spends on military. If the US spent half of their military budge on world poverty, poverty wouldn't exist. Less than one per cent of what the world spent every year on weapons was needed to put every child into school by the year 2000 and yet this didn’t happen. Non-Government Organizations War Corruption is the enemy of wealth, trust and justice.
Corruption affects the poor directly since it increases the price for public services, lowers its quality and often restricts poor people’s access to water, education, health care and many other key services. It also distorts poor people’s relationships with and trust for public officials, the police and people in authority who extort bribes from them. 51 percent of the world’s 100 hundred wealthiest bodies are corporations. Here is a video that speaks about corruption. Education Health Here is the percentage of children getting an education among third world countries A greater population creates more need. More need for jobs, more need for government subsidies, more need for healthcare, etc.
Simply put an overly large population will need more jobs than are available. The lack of jobs will lead to more requests for governments subsidies and more families living below the poverty line. The number of children being born is not decreasing in third world countries its only expanding. Over population puts pressure on all resources including food, pressure on the environment, access to government services such as health care and education. Here is the world coloured to match what percentage of people live under $1.25. Third world countries are the predominant countries suffering from poverty. People often talk about Global North and Global South. The Global North are the wealthy countries while the Global South are the struggling areas of the world. These are also some of the most populated regions. Ineffective government institutions, poor economic policies, a lack of investment in human capital and infrastructure, the the absence of democracy and markets, government regulation and political unrest are the baseline causes of poverty. If the government put more thought into equality among all beings poverty would exist. Natural occurrences can in fact cause poverty, natural disasters ranging from earthquakes, floods, heat waves and storms, can cause poverty. It can damage houses, wreck belongings, damage growing grounds and impair crops and livestock. This can disadvantage individuals in a huge way and in bad cases impoverish people completely. Man made occurrences such as indoor air pollution resulting from the use of solid fuels [by poorer segments of society] is a major killer. It claims the lives of 1.5 million people each year, more than half of them below the age of five: that is 4000 deaths a day. Natural disasters of recent years that have exacerbated poverty are the Boxing Day Tsunami, The Japanese Tsunami of 2011, Hurricane Katrina to name a few. The U.S. government is already working to address income inequality and poverty. Some people believe that the government should be doing more, some believe it should be doing less, and some feel that the current role is about right. Health care is not provided in most of the South Nation, although AID is funded by some charities. Examples of this is the Rotary club raising funds to provide all individuals around the world with a Hep B shot. Education is funded in some places such as South Africa, although the child must buy their own uniform and this can be very expensive. There are programs that are trying to aid maternal health care and help mothers give birth in a safe controlled environment. Around 27-28 percent of all children in developing countries are estimated to be underweight or stunted. The two regions that account for the bulk of the deficit are South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Infectious diseases continue to blight the lives of the poor across the world. An estimated 40 million people are living with HIV/AIDS, with 3 million deaths in 2004. Every year there are 350–500 million cases of malaria, with 1 million fatalities: Africa accounts for 90 percent of malarial deaths and African children account for over 80 percent of malaria victims worldwide. Close to half of all people in developing countries suffering at any given time from a health problem caused by water and sanitation deficits.
Dirty water and poor sanitationclaims 2000 children's lives daily. 15 million children orphaned due to HIV/AIDS (similar to the total children population in Germany or United Kingdom). Introduction Millennium Goals Report Card

Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.C-
World bank, you are achieving at eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, but your are not reaching all targets. There has been no progress in Western Africa. Focus on your problem areas as well. 25 out of 55 countries have halved child malnutrition which means you are on track. 1.6 billion people gained access to clean drinking water from 1990 to 2006. A lot has to be done for you to complete your goal, even though lots has been done. Keep going. Achieve universal primary education.C-
World Bank, although the target is in sight not enough is being done to reach the target. Not much progress is being made, but at least it’s not decreasing.18% rise in universal primary enrollment in sub-Saharan Africa over the past 10 years. 37 million decrease in number of out-of-school children worldwide in the past 10 years. Don't stop progress now and keep on persisting as education is a lynch pin for eradication of poverty. Promote gender equality and empower women.B
World Bank, gender equality has been improving throughout. The target isn’t met yet, but well done on your steady improvements. Although in certain countries gender equality isn't accepted due to religion and beliefs, this makes it hard to tackle. 15-20 year increase in average life expectancy for women since 1970. 4% fewer women in the labor force, from 1980 to 2005. The target will be met if you keep up the good work! Reduce child mortality.A
World Bank, you have worked hard to achieve your goals, There are no places where you won’t meet the millennium goal. Although all places aren’t going to meet the deadline on time, even if they’re improving. 107 out of 145 developing countries are off track to achieve MDG 4 by 2015, but will be achieved shorty after. 3 million fewer under-5 children died from diseases such as diarrhea, malnutrition, pneumonia, AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis in 2006 than in 1990. Keep on persisting.
Improve maternal health. F
World Bank you’re slightly improving global maternal health. There have been some small improvements, with reducing by 34% in 2008, although Africa has not been improving. More effort needs to be made, to pass this goal. You have made sub-goals to achieve here which makes the targets more difficult to meet. You are not going to meet this goal within the time frame.
Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases.B-
World Bank, I am impressed with your efforts. The target has not been reached yet, but your goal is definitely in sight. 39% drop in TB mortality among HIV negative people between 1990 and 2009, due to TB control efforts. Keep up the effort and there will be no issue achieving your goals! Ensure environmental sustainability. D+
World Bank, you have been improving slowly. There has been no real huge efforts made and this is letting you down. 76 countries are on track to hit the drinkable water target. Try harder and you will see results there are still 2.5 billion people still lack basic sanitation and 13 million hectares of forest are still lost every year. You can do it if the efforts are put in. Develop a global partnership for development.B-
World Bank, your goal has been improving. There has been progress in all areas. 54% of revenues were used for poverty-reducing expenditures in HIPCs in 2009, up 10% from 2001. $76.4 billion in HIPC debt relief had been committed by June 2010 to 36 countries, of which 30 countries have received an additional $45.8 billion under the MDRI. If efforts are kept up, you will achieve your goal. Summary comment
The world is forever improving, there has not been any cases getting worse. Although if more effort is put into these projects there would be no problem for completing all goals, they are achievable. Some goals are just going to take longer than others. Keep up the good work because there is the ability to eradicate poverty by 2030 if you keep on tackling the issues head on. Since the industrial revolution there was no extreme poverty. People were poor but there was no extreme poverty as individuals lived off the land. The extent of poverty now is enormous. There is poverty all over the world, although it does vary in severity. Poverty is extremely complex, so it cannot be fixed in a matter of days. It is a long complex task, that the world should continue to work toward eradicating it. There are numerous aspects to poverty which means that sometimes getting out of poverty seems impossible. This can be vicious cycle. Conclusion Solutions to Poverty Bono
Bono has been a leader in the fight against poverty, and has helped to create the ONE Campaign, which is an effort by Americans to rally Americans – ONE by ONE – to fight the emergency of global AIDS and extreme poverty. Bono works on a Macroscale, in which is the largest scale, to solve poverty and he uses his fame to his advantage. Bono has also created a clothing company which is striving to stimulate trade with poverty stricken countries called EDUN. Grameen-Muhammad Yunus
Muhammad Yunus is a Bangladeshi banker, economist and Nobel Peace Prize recipient. He previously was a professor of economics where he developed the concepts of microcredit and microfinance. These loans are given to entrepreneurs too poor to qualify for traditional bank loans. In 2006 Yunus and Grameen Bank received the Nobel Peace Prize "for their efforts through microcredit to create economic and social development from below". Yunus works on a micro scale helping only a few people out of a time to get out of poverty. Yunus also believes that all in poverty stricken countries debt should be cleared to help, break the cycle. Greg Mortenson
Greg Mortenson is an American humanitarian, professional speaker, writer, and former mountaineer. He is a co-founder and former executive director of the non-profit Central Asia Institute as well as the founder of the educational charity Pennies for Peace. Mortenson is the author or co-author of Three Cups of Tea and Stones into Schools. Mortenson works to benefit poor countries by giving them schools and supplies to learn and break the cycle. He believes that people have the ability to break free from poverty if they are given access to education. People are powerful especially when communities work together for a cause. UNICEF.
UNICEF started supporting Women Literacy and Empowerment Program in 2006 with a focus on delivering literacy services through the establishment of literacy centers for women and capacity building of a Literacy department to deliver and manage literacy programmes in the country. The curriculum, which was developed through a rigorous process with the involvement of international experts, covers health, social and protection issues apart from numeracy and literacy skills. This curriculum was also used to benefit women of 15 to 49 years of age through a joint programme on Literacy in partnership with UNESCO, WFP, FAO, WHO and under the leadership of the Ministry of Education. The overall achievement of the previous literacy programme which started in 2006 and ended in 2009 was to teach around 300,000 women from all over the country how to read and write. Objectives of the project during the programme cycle of 2007 to 2009 were: 1) to increase the literacy rate among adults, especially females of 15 to 49 years of age by 50% by 2009, 2) to create an environment which is conducive to and in favour of adult literacy, and 3) to develop the capacity of the Ministry of Education and its staff at provincial and district levels to plan, implement, manage and monitor literacy programmes.
In the current programme cycle, which started this year and will end in 2013, there is an objective of covering 280,000 women of 15 to 25 years of age. This programme will be implemented in all 34 provinces and covering 70,000 women each year. UNICEF operates on the philosophy that empowering people, in particular women, is the answer as women then enact changes in their communities. Prezi Conclusion
Therefore we have been able to see that poverty is one of the major issues in the world that needs to be addressed quickly. In the poorest villages thousands of people are dying, and most of these people are children. We have learned that poverty refers to the condition of not having the means to afford basic human needs such as clean water, nutrition, healthcare, clothing, food, and a place to live. Poverty is a deadly issue that’s killing millions slowly. We need to take actions against it. We have also learned that poverty affects people, because of the lack of access to resources. This means that if anything goes wrong they are unable to rise above the problem. For example illness may stop a person working and this can plummet them into the downward spiral of poverty. Even though there are a lot of people trying to stop poverty, it is impossible to stop it without the support of rich countries. This is because to fight poverty we have to fight it with a lot of money and there only a few countries that provide adequate support.

There are a number of ways of tackling poverty. central to the success of various measures is the empowerment of people whether it be through education, access to health care or proving employment opportunities.

Thus, everyday people must make their voices heard so that governments make poverty a higher priority ahead of things like spending on the military. People have the power to make the change. We have the power. So stand up and be heard. Causes of poverty Poverty reduction is a major goal and issue for many international organizations such as the United Nations and the World Bank. The World Bank estimated 1.29 billion people were living in absolute poverty in 2008. Of these, about 400 million people in absolute poverty lived in India and 173 million people in China. In USA 1 in 5 children lives in poverty. In terms of percentage of regional populations, sub-Saharan Africa at 47% had the highest incidence rate of absolute poverty in 2008. Between 1990 and 2010, about 663 million people moved above the absolute poverty level. Still, extreme poverty is a global challenge; it is observed in all parts of the world, including the developed economies.

There is no one solution to poverty. Many efforts to solve poverty must be made to completely eradicate poverty. Poverty is an extremely complex and challenging problem, that has numerous aspects to it. Although individuals may escape from poverty, they often fall back into the same poverty circle. All people have the power to help themselves and not just look one step ahead, but aim to be something bigger and better and expand as a being. All individuals have the power to help and to be heard. If everyone pulls together and makes a change, poverty can be eliminated. The issue with extreme poverty is to provide people with the way to move forward.

The poverty cycle has been defined by poor families become trapped in poverty for at least three generations. For enough time that the family includes no surviving ancestors who possess and can transmit the intellectual, social, and cultural capital necessary to stay out of or escape poverty; in calculations of expected generation length and ancestor lifespan, the lower median age of parents in these families is offset by the shorter lifespans in many of these groups. Once in the poverty the poverty cycle, it’s almost impossible to get out of. This can be due to not being educated and therefore not being able to educate their families and community, becoming ill and not having access to medical support.

There are various foundations and support groups that help people in poverty, both providing aid, food, building material and medical assistance. These groups can work on micro to macro scales. Bono believes that people have the power and he uses his fame to spread his message. The ONE campaign has been very successful and he works on a MACRO scale to help all individuals.

Yunus believes that the Community has the power if they are just given the right sources, he believes in the concepts of microcredit and microfinance. Yunus also believes that all in poverty stricken countries debt should be cleared to help, break the cycle.

Mortenson also believes that communities have the power. Especially empowering is educating girls. Mortenson is the founder of the educational charity Pennies for Peace. Mortenson works to benefit poor countries by giving them schools and supply s to learn and break the cycle.

One solution alone is not the answer. Because poverty is such a complex issue it must be tackled on multiple fronts. The important concept is that people have the power to make changes if they are given access to the resources to make a better life. This graph shows that although a small number of people live on less than $1.00 per day a significant number (5.15 billion were below the poverty line earning less than $10.00 per day. This graph represents the cycle of poverty. It shows that once in this circle it is almost impossible to escape. This map of the world shows which countries still have problems with malaria. It is evident that Africa, Asia and parts of South America still have problems. Mosquitoes kill more people in Africa than any other cause. Bono believes that extreme poverty is obscene and should be abolished. He believes this is the generation to do this.
He believes that everyday people have the power to exact this change as they have a voice which if used will be heard by governments. He also believes that wealthy countries should do more which can be done through increasing % GDP and debt cancellation. I addition he believes he must use his celebrity status to help the millions in poverty. Conclusion Internationally governments have promised to increase the percentage of GDP to assist in the fight o poverty. 1% is the promised figure which Bono has been campaigning for. Countries have promised this, but no country is yet to deliver. Norway leads the way contributing .7%, Australia is also doing well in contrast to other nations donating .4%. This is worrisome because it is still so far off the target. Weak government also contributes to poverty.
Where those in power actually are not in control money is not spent where it is needed. It takes strong leadership to make effective policy changes that will benefit the poor. This is because the poor are often disnfranchised and so don't have a voice and don't count when it comes to elections. Effects of poverty include: Inability to afford health care so falling ill Unable to work because of illness or seeking health care for family members Unable to access an education because required to work/ can't afford the uniform/ can't get to closest school Losing children at a young age so having bigger families to compensate Mothers losing their lives in childbirth due to poor health care so children growing up without maternal care Inability to afford seeds for next year's harvest because seeds are now infertile or land is not owned by the farmer of that land Eating poor quality food because that is all available, leading to poor health and low energy levels Not aware of rights so not voting, not accessing assistance, not getting a education Poverty is complex as causes and effects are interrelated. One cause can have multiple effects. This is why it is so difficult to fight and to understand. Most factors are not in the control of the person suffering from poverty. In wealthy countries the government provides services to assist the poor: education is free, unemployed get a benefit, health services are subsidised and essential immunisations are free. In the poorer nations of the world the governments do not provide such supports. This is an important factor that results in people entering the poverty trap. Sanitation, or lack of sanitation is a major cause of loss of life. Along with access to clean water the two factors are the greatest killer of children. Having clean water alone is not adequate if poor sanitation poisons it.

Rose George is passionate about changing this situation. See the TED talks clip that shows how 75% of childhood deaths can be prevented through access to toilets.

Interestingly it is not only access, but changing people's perceptions about the value of toilets. It is no point having toilets if they are used to house chicken and cattle.

A current campaign in rural India urges women not to marry a man that cannot provide a toilet. Dirty water contains parasites, bacteria and worms.
It can lead to diseases such as typhoid, scabies, dysentery and the common, but deadly diarrhoea. Diarrhoea, literally keeps people poor.
According to the United Nations 443 million school days are lost each year and 20 billion working days are lost annually because of diarrhoea. Yunus realises that poverty is a complex issue which needs to be tackled across many fronts. Therefore when people apply for a loan they sign up to the 16 decisions. These are factors that can help break the poverty cycle: using latrines, washing hands, boiling water, educating children, growing fresh fruit and vegetables. Yunus also understands that people have the power to make the changes they want if they are given the way to do so. As such it is groups within each community that manages his banks. In addition Yunus discovered that more than just money was required. He has set uo many subsidiary organisations such as a telephone company so that people can do business; electricity and more There are numerous other groups and methods that tackle poverty such as The Global Poverty Project and Oxfam. These two organizations also acknowledge that it is a complex issue and as such fight poverty across a number of fronts. They also realize that everyday people have a powerful voice that can be used to force governments to make a change. Oxfam fight on these fronts:
-water and sanitation
-education
-health eg immunisations
-improved livelihoods such as raising goats The Global Poverty Project works on education and campaigning poverty, to increase individuals knowledge on extreme poverty. Global Poverty Project puts the message across to be a global citizenship. Its the power of one person that can do a lot, because of if we all take small actions, it creates change. d'Arcy Lunn, and other project managers in the Global Poverty Project educates people all over the world on the poverty issues and what can be done to help reduce extreme poverty and encourage each of us to be a positive global citizen. The Global Poverty Project encourage us to help.
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