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Human Trafficking Capstone Presentation

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Stephanie Diane

on 27 June 2013

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Transcript of Human Trafficking Capstone Presentation

*Human Trafficking often thought of on global scale
*United States contains multiple international hubs
*Atlanta, Georgia one of the largest hubs
*Projects focuses on exploited minors in Atlanta, GA

*Why does trafficking occur?
*Balance between the supply and the demand of the victims Addressing Demand-Side
of Sex Trafficking in Georgia Key Terms
*Human Trafficking: The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. A child does not have the mental capacity to prostitute themselves.

*Johns: The clients of prostitutes

*Tricks: The sexual acts purchased by johns.

*Pimps: An agent for prostitutes who collects part of their earnings. The individual may receive this money in return for advertising services, physical protection, or for providing, and possibly monopolizing, a location where she may engage clients.

*Facilitators: As individual landlords, organizations, business owners of adult entertainment venues, hotel and motel owners, transportation owners, and massage parlor owners. What all facilitators have in common is that they provide a facility that aids in human trafficking. Shifting Demand: Stakeholders: Proponents and Opponents Proponents for anti-child trafficking efforts

– Federal Government
– State/Local Governments
– Police Force
– Advocacy Groups/Non-profits

• Opponents for anti-child trafficking efforts

– Major Illegal groups
– Those affiliated: “Johns” Child Sex Victims *American Youth most vulnerable to becoming victims

*“There is an endless supply of victims in this country”. Andrew Oosterbaan

*According to 2010 Federal data, 1.7 million runaways/throwaways add to vulnerable population

*Highly likely to be sexually exploited

*Victim recruitment most likely to occur….

*Several recruitment types:
*Trade Dominated by two : Guerilla and Finesse
Facilitators Data Analysis Why Not Seek Help? Traffickers and Pimps Traffickers and Pimps • Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (TVPA)
requires annual report

• US Government Accountability Office’s founding in 2006
– Do efforts really impact the level of trafficking?

• US Trafficking in Persons Reports (TIP) increases the
number of countries adopting domestic legislation to
punish traffickers

• Empirical challenges exist in enforcing the anti-
trafficking laws – “hidden population” Facilitators (Claudette) Traffickers and Pimps Prosecution of Johns *Johns come from all walks of life

*Research suggests not possible to distinguish between men’s demand for victims of sex trafficking from men’s demand for commercial sex acts

*Small percentage of Johns are habitual, repeat buyers, most likely not swayed by deterrence.

*Vast majority are men who purchase infrequently; most likely to be swayed by incentive of harsher legislation. Data Analysis •Quantitative Data from Sponsor Projects
Compiled in regards to demand

• A form of meta-analysis

• Lack of longitudinal data, but tried to note
trends
• Compared law quality across states
• Access to information extremely difficult due
to child protection and lack of collected data "Nordic Model" *In 1999, Sweden passed legislation that criminalized the buyer of sexual services
the demand side of sex is a crucial component in order to decrease the presence of sex trafficking and prostitution within the country.

*Sweden Ten Year Evaluation results:
*street prostitution has been cut by 35-50%;
*no evidence that the reduction in street prostitution has led to an increase in prostitution elsewhere
*the bill provides increased services for women to exit prostitution;
*fewer men state that they purchase sexual services;
*ban has had an effect on traffickers who find Sweden an unattractive market to sell women and children for sex (Gunilla, 2004).
. *Sweden appears to be the only country in Europe where prostitution and sex trafficking has not increased.

***The success of the Nordic model is not so much in penalizing the men (the penalties are modest) as in removing the invisibility of men who are outed when they get caught. This, in turn, makes it less appealing for pimps and traffickers to set up shop in countries where the customer base fears the loss of its anonymity and is declining. (Raymond, 2002). Public Disclosure: Education & Awareness • Atlanta’s “Dear John” Campaign (2006-08)

– Not wide spread
– No formal evaluation showing results
– Eventually lost funding options and disappeared

• US DOD Campaign

– Educate internally and externally
– Example that could be applied to large corporations Child Sex Victims (continued) *For every John there are 50 women in prostitution arrested

*Traditionally sought to penalize prostitutes to decrease the demand for purchased sex

*Approach unsuccessful

*Increase in prostitution, pimping, and trafficking

*A shift from supply to other models to tackle industry Facilitators (Claudette) Introduction- Overview *What is considered “Pimping”?
*Subculture… Data Analysis Data Analysis Data Analysis Data Analysis Quality of Laws in Georgia Data Validity Current Policy in Georgia *HB 200 was recently passed in Georgia, which was enacted in order address very serious concerns about the growing Human Trafficking problem facing Atlanta today. Key provisions in HB 200 include:
*Harsher punishment for blood relatives, such as parents exploiting their children – or by marriage – such as a husband “selling” his wife
* Significantly increases penalties for human traffickers who specifically target minors.
*Treats those in sexual servitude as victims, not criminals, by offering them recovery under the state crime victim’s fund
*Allows the state to seize any real or personal property that a trafficker used for, or bought with the proceeds of the crime.
*Requires law enforcement agencies to receive training on how to relate to human trafficking victims.

*While HB 200 addresses The "Suppliers"(Traffickers and Pimps) and the "Commodity" (Women and Children) It falls short in addressing the "Demand" side of this issue, the Johns who purchase sex in the first place. Prevention Tools Policy Suggestions Path Analysis Data Analysis *Quantitative Data from Sponsor Projects
Compiled in regards to demand

• A form of meta-analysis

• Lack of longitudinal data, but tried to note
trends
• Compared law quality across states
• Access to information extremely difficult due
to child protection and lack of collected data Data Analysis *Quantitative Data from Sponsor Projects
Compiled in regards to demand

• A form of meta-analysis

• Lack of longitudinal data, but tried to note
trends
• Compared law quality across states
• Access to information extremely difficult due
to child protection and lack of collected data Data Analysis *Quantitative Data from Sponsor Projects
Compiled in regards to demand

• A form of meta-analysis

• Lack of longitudinal data, but tried to note
trends
• Compared law quality across states
• Access to information extremely difficult due
to child protection and lack of collected data Data Analysis *Quantitative Data from Sponsor Projects
Compiled in regards to demand

• A form of meta-analysis

• Lack of longitudinal data, but tried to note
trends
• Compared law quality across states
• Access to information extremely difficult due
to child protection and lack of collected data Data Analysis *Quantitative Data from Sponsor Projects
Compiled in regards to demand

• A form of meta-analysis

• Lack of longitudinal data, but tried to note
trends
• Compared law quality across states
• Access to information extremely difficult due
to child protection and lack of collected data Data Analysis *Quantitative Data from Sponsor Projects
Compiled in regards to demand

• A form of meta-analysis

• Lack of longitudinal data, but tried to note
trends
• Compared law quality across states
• Access to information extremely difficult due
to child protection and lack of collected data Data Analysis *Quantitative Data from Sponsor Projects
Compiled in regards to demand

• A form of meta-analysis

• Lack of longitudinal data, but tried to note
trends
• Compared law quality across states
• Access to information extremely difficult due
to child protection and lack of collected data Data Analysis *Quantitative Data from Sponsor Projects
Compiled in regards to demand

• A form of meta-analysis

• Lack of longitudinal data, but tried to note
trends
• Compared law quality across states
• Access to information extremely difficult due
to child protection and lack of collected data Data Analysis *Quantitative Data from Sponsor Projects
Compiled in regards to demand

• A form of meta-analysis

• Lack of longitudinal data, but tried to note
trends
• Compared law quality across states
• Access to information extremely difficult due
to child protection and lack of collected data Original data collected by http://www.sharedhope.org/Portals/0/Documents/PIIFactSheet.pdf (Affiliated with our direct sponsor) *Internal Validity
Threat: Highly secretive population= skewed data
Looked for trends from accessible data
Likely that the results don’t even represent true size of problem due to lack of arrests, etc.

*External Validity
Threat: Only looking at Atlanta=Differing demographics
We are only looking to inform Georgia with policy suggestions based on Georgia’s data
But, laws across states could beneficial
JOHN SCHOOLS:
Provides men with information about child sex trafficking and adult prostitution in aim to stop them from buying sex, which will in turn stop prostitution and trafficking.


S.O.A.P. ORDERS:
“Stay Out of Areas with Prostitution,” The S.O.A.P. zones allow courts to require
people charged with prostitution to stay out of high-prostitution areas–primarily around
downtown–while they await trial or following their release from jail.


SHAMING:
Publicizing identities of arrested johns, via news outlets, police websites, billboards.Making it publicly aware that an individual has purchased sex from minor and must now deal with public scrutiny
*Extreme lack of data showing relationship between public education/awareness campaigns and trafficking trends Questions? Example: Prosecution of Johns in Sweden
Criteria Policy Suggestions to Decrease Demand for Purchased Sex Evaluation of Policy Suggestions Recommended Improvement to Policy Social/Cultural Acceptability
Effectiveness
Efficiency
Institutional Constraints *Education
*John Schools
*Mandatory Responder

*S.O.A.P.

*Shaming Profile of Trafficked Victim in Atlanta What This Shift Means Utilizing more stringent laws specifically to demand both in relation to trafficked individuals and prostitution and increasing consequences after arrest can effect demand by affecting a man’s likelihood of ACTING- therefore we are losing acting buyers
This will leave “sellers” or prostitutes in a position where they must either relocate to areas not as stringent or leave the market
In regards to children, there are resources that will safely facilitate exit from market
Full transcript