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The CHEMISTRY OF BASIC NUTRITION

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Yasmine Zain Al-Yafeai

on 23 May 2015

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Transcript of The CHEMISTRY OF BASIC NUTRITION

objectives
The CHEMISTRY OF BASIC NUTRITION
Understand the chemical reactions in nutrition.
Able to identify monomers and polymers.
Understanding how digestion occur and absorption.
Knowing the basic chemistry of the fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamins, and minerals.
CHEMICAL REACTIONS
What is chemical reactions?
When one or more chemical substances are changed into one or more different substances, is called as chemical reaction.
Example ,the reaction of hydrogen gas and oxygen gas to produce water. Another example is the reaction of hydrochloric acid in your stomach with proteins you have eaten. In chemical reactions, atoms exchange bonding partners. Almost everything about nutrition involves specific chemical reactions.
MONOMERS AND POLYMERS
What is Monomers and Polymers?
Polymers are very large molecules made from smaller molecules called monomers.
Example, Starch is a polymer made up of sugar monomers.
DIGESTION
Digestion is a chemical process in which the large molecules that we eat (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) are broken down into smaller molecules in chemical reactions.
ABSORPTION
Polymers are broken down into their monomers. The monomer products of digestion must be absorbed from the stomach and small intestine into the circulatory system, in which blood carries the products throughout the body to cells that require nutrition.
DIGESTION AND CHEMICAL REACTION
Cell Respiration
Metabolism can be defined as “the sum total of all the chemical reactions in the body,” but the reactions we’re concerned with here are cellular respiration.
In these reactions, the products of digestion are broken down primarily to water and carbon dioxide, and, with the help of oxygen, energy is trapped in a molecule called ATP.
WHAT IS ATP...
When ATP is formed, energy is trapped in its molecules.
when ATP reacts with other molecules, the stored energy is transferred to drive those chemical reactions.
ATP is the most important “energy bank” in the living world.
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NUTRIENTS!
What is nutrient?
Nutrient is a molecule or ion that supports our metabolism or physiology. There are many nutrients in our diet. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are sources of energy. While Vitamins, minerals, and water support metabolism
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. There is two type of carbohydrates, starches and sugar.
Starches are large polymers made up of hundreds to many thousands of copies of a single monomer, the simple sugar called glucose. The glucose monomers are mostly connected end-to-end, but there is also some branching within the starch molecule
Carbohydrates are needed to give the body energy.
PROTEIN
Proteins are enormous polymers. Proteins in our diet are used to make the specific proteins our body uses. It assist with growth and repair of the body. Found in animal products like meat, fish, cheese, milk and eggs. Vegetable sources include soya-bean products, pulses and nuts.
AMINO ACIDS
The monomers of proteins are amino acids, of which 20 kinds are found in proteins. The amino acids are connected end-to-end, so proteins do not branch.
All amino acids contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
ENZYME
proteins that control the rates of the thousands of chemical reactions going on in our cells. Many of the enzymes are involved in the reactions of digestion.
FATS
Fats are not polymers, but they are molecules that must be digested, releasing simpler molecules. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Fats are digested very slowly in the human digestive tract, beginning in the small intestine.
Saturated fats
are usually obtained from animal sources, for example butter and lard. The exceptions are coconut and palm oils.
Polyunsaturated fats
come from vegetable sources, such as sunflower oil.
VITAMINS
Vitamin is simply a chemical substance, necessary in small quantities to sustain life, which the body cannot make for itself from the products of digestion.
The main vitamins are vitamin A, the B complex of vitamins, vitamin C and vitamin D.
MINERALS
Mineral is simply a kind of ion which we must include in our diet.
We need many different minerals, but those needed in largest quantity are calcium, chlorine, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and sulfur. Iron and nine other minerals are required in lower quantity—but are still essential.
Calcium
Calcium is needed for the growth of healthy teeth and bones. Sources of calcium include milk, cheese, eggs, wholegrain cereals, green vegetables, bread and tofu.
phosphorus is a component of DNA and all other nucleic acids.
Phosphorus
Iron
ron is needed for the formation of red blood cells. Sources of iron include red meat, green vegetables, eggs, lentils and bread.
by Yasmine Zain
IONS AND SALTS
If an atom loses or gains electrons, it becomes an ion rather than an atom. the minerals we require in our diet, such as calcium, magnesium, and iron, are all present as ions, not as atoms. Some ions have positive charges, and others have negative charges. Ions are very soluble in water.
Positively charged ions can combine with negatively charged ions to form salts. The salt most familiar to us is sodium chloride, in which sodium is a positively charged ion and chloride is a negatively charged ion. Some salts, such as sodium chloride, dissolve readily in water, breaking up into their component ions.
IONS
SALTS
Overall, the energy originally associated with the chemical bonds of food molecules ends up in muscle contraction, movement of substances across membranes, the chemical bonds of newly synthesized molecules, and heat.
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