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Environmental Effects of Dairy

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Amanda Ellis

on 12 November 2013

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Transcript of Environmental Effects of Dairy


The Cows

Processing
Refrigeration
The Effects of Dairy on the Environment
Transportation
Discussion Question
Citations
BC Dairy, Egg and Poultry industries. (2009). Socio-economic impact of British Columbia's
dairy, chicken, turkey, hatching egg and table egg industries. Retrieved from Prince
Waterhouse Coopers website http://www.theholmteam.ca/
Beynon, J., Neo-Liang, S. H., St. Arnault, R. (2002). The ecological foorprint of dairy production
Retrieved from http://www.vipirg.ca/archive/publications/pubs/student_papers/02_ecofootprint_dairy.pdf
Body Systems. (2010). [photograph). Retrieved from http://www.scottsdalefitnessandhealth.com/
wp-content/uploads/2013/09/eating-on-the-go.jpg
Bomke A., Rojas A., and Skura B. (2010). The British Columbia Dairy System as a Case Study
.Retrieved from the University of British Columbia, Faculty of Land and Food Systems.
British Columbia Dairy Association. (2013). The importance of quality milk. Retrieved from
http://bcdairy.ca/milk/articles/the-importance-of-quality-milk/
Clarity Digital Group LLC. (2013). [photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.examiner.com/
article/save-the-planet-by-ditching-the-fridge
Dairy Farmers of Canada. (n.d.). At the farm. Retrieved from http://www.dairygoodness.ca/100-
percent-canadian-milk/from-farm-to-table/at-the-farm
Government of Canada. (2012). Reducing methane emissions from livestock. Retrieved from
http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/science-and-innovation/science-publications-and-resources/technical-factsheets/reducing-methane-emissions-from-livestock/?id=1305058576718
Live Smart BC. (2013). B.C.’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Retrieved from http://
www.livesmartbc.ca/learn/emissions.html
Ministry of Agriculture. Food and Rural Affairs. (2012). 2013 field crop budgets: Publication 60.
Retrieved from http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/busdev/facts/pub60.pdf
McKague, K., Reid, K., & Simpson, H. (2005). Environmental impacts of nitrogen use in
agriculture. Retrieved from The Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food website: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/engineer/facts/05-073.htm
Sage, C. (2012). Environment and food. New York, NY: Routledge.
Sears. (2013). [photograph]. Retrieved from http://c.shld.net/rpx/i/s/i/spin/image/
spin_prod_694347001
Tukker. A., Huppes, G., Guinée, J., Heijungs, R., De Koning, A., Van Oers, L., Suh, S., . . . Nielsen, P.
(2006). Environmantal impact of products (EIPRO) Analysis of the life cycle environmental impacts related to the final consumption of the EU-25. Institute for Prospective Technological Studies/European Science and Technology Observatory, European Commission Joint Research Centre, 106. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ipp/pdf/eipro_report.pdf
Western Dairy Transport, LLC. (2013). [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.wdtmilk.com.
Wisconsin Dairy Products Association. (2010). [photograph]. Retrieved from http:/
/www.wdpa.net/
Xinhui Wane Stailless Steel. (2013). [Photograph] Retrieved from http://jin-he.en.alibaba.com/
product/541690302-201147168/ice_cream_refrigerator.html

From the streeter we found dairy...
-To be a main component of many peoples diets
-Is consumed in multiple forms
-Products are chosen for a variety of reasons including:
-Price -Brand
-Nutrition -Purpose
-Flavour -Texture

So what was our purpose in asking this question?
-To see if peoples consideration process included concern for the environmental impact of the product

Results Showed...
-The environmental impact ("global warming potential")was not a consideration (Sage, 2012, p. 3).

Why is this important?
-The largest contributing factor to "human-induced climate change" is the production and consumption of food (Sage, 2012, p.3)
- Sage (2012) stated that consumed products account for 31% of the global warming potential caused by humans
-Transport accounts for only "18.5%" (Tukker et al., 2006, p. 106)
Our Main Focus
-Identify the environmental impacts at various stages of dairy production in the British Columbia dairy system
-Look at the environmental consequences at each stage, and what is being done to amend the situations
-Focusing on:
-Raising of cows
-Processing the milk to pasteurization
-Transport to market
-Refrigeration
-Within the 31% of the Global warming potential of food production 4% is attributed to dairy (Sage, 2012, p. 183)
-second behind meat accounting for 4-12% (Sage, 2012, p. 183)
Dairy's Global Warming Potential
-Refers to "a measure of the ability of a greenhouse gas to trap heat in the atmosphere [combining] its efficiency to absorb and radiate heat, and its lifespan in the atmosphere" (Sage, 2012, p. 298).
-Calculated for a certain product by looking at the "total greenhouse gas emissions arising from production, use and disposal" (Sage, 2012, p. 298).
Sage, C. (2012). Environment and food. New York, NY: Routledge.
Sage, C. (2012). Environment and food. New York, NY: Routledge.
-Tukker. A., Huppes, G., Guinée, J., Heijungs, R., De Koning, A., Van Oers, L., Suh, S., . . . Nielsen, P. (2006). Environmantal impact of products (EIPRO) Analysis of the life cycle environmental impacts related to the final consumption of the EU-25. Institute for Prospective Technological Studies/European Science and Technology Observatory, European Commission Joint Research Centre, 106. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ipp/pdf/eipro_report.pdf
-Sage, C. (2012). Environment and food. New York, NY: Routledge.
Sage, C. (2012). Environment and food. New York, NY: Routledge.
Global Warming Potential (GWP)
Wisconsin Dairy Products Association. (2010). [photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.wdpa.net/

Food Miles
"Just-in-time" Systems
-Refers to the distance the food is transported from the time of its production until it reaches the consumer.
-Can be used in determining environmental impacts of food.
-Just saying the fewer the food miles the better can be misleading.
-The purpose of these systems is to reduce the amount time that retailers are holding stock and to speed products through to the point of sale (Sage 2012).
-Higher profitability for manufacturers.
-Impacts on the environment are not so positive.
Why refrigeration?
What does it do?


-Sage, C. (2012). Environment and food. New York, NY: Routledge.
What is the principle of refrigeration?
Vehicle Transport

-In BC, transportation accounts for the largest share of provincial green house gas emissions.
-Many dairy products are transported using stainless steel tanker trucks. Capacity of regular tankers varies between 10 000 and 35 000 litres.
-BC dairy products must be held at 4°C during transport (Roberts, 1998).

What did the refrigeration technology bring people?
principle
problem
solution: hydrocarbon
1st generation refrigerators
principles
problems
solutions- floro-free
2nd generation refrigerators
Dairy Farms and Processors
Processing Steps
Milking
Pasteurization
Separation and Homogenization
Packaging.
Roberts, L. (1998). UNEP: World Resources: A Guide to the Global Environment (1998- 1999). Oxford University Press: New York
2008 PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Vehicle Transport
- The energy required to keep the refrigeration units functioning and the vehicle operating are factors directly involved in air pollution and fuel consumption (University of Guelph, 2002).
-Development of refrigeration is what allows for food to be transported far distances while being kept fresh.
University of Guelph. (2002). Production and Utilization of Steam and Refrigeration- Dairy Science and Technology. Accessed on 16 June 2002: http://www.foodsci.uo guelph.ca/dairyedu/utilities.html
What can we do to help slow down the global warming situation?
Feed Requirements
Western Dairy Transport, LLC. (2013). [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.wdtmilk.com.
METHANE
Improvements on various levels of production
HOW IS IT PRODUCED:
- "Methane gas is a potent greenhouse gas produced in the rumen of cattle during the normal process of feed digestion and represents a significant loss of feed energy that increases feed costs" (Government of Canada, 2012)
WHY IS IT BAD?
- "In one year, the amount of methane a dairy cow produces is equivalent to the greenhouse gas emissions from a mid-sized vehicle driven 20,000 kilometres" (Government of Canada, 2012)

- Lactating dairy cow produces about 400 g of methane each day.

- 40 % of Canadian agricultural emissions are directly from methane

- 90% of methane emissions come from cattle and sheep as a result of feed digestion
-Diet composed of seasonal grasses (orcard grass), Legumes (clover) and silage (Bomke et al., 2010, p. 16).
-Silage is made from finely cut whole corn stalks and leftover grasses
-It is stored in anaerobic conditions and is fermented by Lactobacillus bacteria
- Fermentation produces acid that acts as a preservative (Bomke et al., 2010, p. 16).
Why are refrigerators needed daily?
Fertilization of Corn For Silage
WHAT iS THE CURRENT PLAN?
1. Feeding strategies
- increasing dietary fats decreases energy loss as methane production by 20%
- increasing grain ration decreases methane emission
- corn grain vs. barley grain decreases methane emission as does corn silage and alfalfa
- ionophores are antimicrobials that target bacteria population and increase production efficiency and decrease methane

2. Feed additives
- dried yeast product addition to feed improve fibre digestion decreased methane gas production by 6%

3. Feed conversion efficiency
- amount of feed consumed per kg of milk produced / weight gained
- increasing this would decrease methane output

4. Management practices
- decreasing number of animals on dairy farm will decrease
improving reproductive performance of cows
selective breeding and genetic selection


1) Component and Equipment Level
2) Process level
3) Facility Level
http://c.shld.net/rpx/i/s/i/spin/image/spin_prod_694347001
-Sage, C. (2012). Environment and food. New York, NY: Routledge. p172
http://jin-he.en.alibaba.com/product/541690302-201147168/ice_cream_refrigerator.html
-Sage, C. (2012). Environment and food. New York, NY: Routledge. p172
1) Do you think other improvements can lessen the environmental impact, if yes, why? if no, why?
-Certain amount of land dairy farm is set
aside for growth of corn for silage (Bomke et al., 2010, p. 16).
-Macronutrients often requiring fertilization include nitrogen (155kg/ha), phosphorous (20kg/ha)and potassium (50kg/ha) (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, 2012)
-Only 30-50% of nitrogen, and 45% of phosphorous is taken up by the corn (Sage, 2012, p. 96).
-Large portion of the remainder leaches into water sources which can cause harm to both people and wildlife
-Bomke A., Rojas A., and Skura B. (2010). The British Columbia Dairy System as a Case Study. Retrieved from the University of British Columbia, Faculty of Land and Food Systems.
-Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. (2012). 2013 field crop budgets: Publication 60. Retrieved from http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/busdev/facts/pub60.pdf
-Sage, C. (2012). Environment and food. New York, NY: Routledge.
What is Being Done?
-Using natural sources such as manure to supply nutrients
-Using buffer strips and filters to clean water before it enters surrounding water sources
-Crop rotation with nitrogen fixing crops (legumes)
-Limiting fertilizer application
-Timing fertilization to when plants will maximize uptake
-Proper manure storage
(McKague, 2005)
http://www.scottsdalefitnessandhealth.com/how-to-eat-healthy-on-the-go.html

http://www.examiner.com/article/save-the-planet-by-ditching-the-fridge
-Sage, C. (2012). Environment and food. New York, NY: Routledge. p172
http://faculty.wcas.northwestern.edu/~infocom/Ideas/fridge.html
-Sage, C. (2012). Environment and food. New York, NY: Routledge. p173
http://lifehacker.com/5898735/store-dairy-on-the-top-shelf-of-the-fridge-and-other-tricks-for-food-freshness
-Sage, C. (2012). Environment and food. New York, NY: Routledge. p174
-McKague, K., Reid, K., & Simpson, H. (2005). Environmental impacts of nitrogen use in agriculture. Retrieved from The Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food website: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/engineer/facts/05-073.htm
http://www.inventec.dehon.com/fr/chimie-fine/intermediaires-de-synthese/19/r600a/223.html
-Sage, C. (2012). Environment and food. New York, NY: Routledge. p173
-Bomke A., Rojas A., and Skura B. (2010). The British Columbia Dairy System as a Case Study. Retrieved from the University of British Columbia, Faculty of Land and Food Systems.
-Sage, C. (2012). Environment and food. New York, NY: Routledge. p175
Government of Canada. (2012). Reducing methane emissions from livestock. Retrieved from http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/science-and-innovation/science-publications-and-resources/technical-factsheets/reducing-methane-emissions-from-livestock/?id=1305058576718
Government of Canada. (2012). Reducing methane emissions from livestock. Retrieved from http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/science-and-innovation/science-publications-and-resources/technical-factsheets/reducing-methane-emissions-from-livestock/?id=1305058576718
Government of Canada. (2012). Reducing methane emissions from livestock. Retrieved from http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/science-and-innovation/science-publications-and-resources/technical-factsheets/reducing-methane-emissions-from-livestock/?id=1305058576718
2) Buying locally grown food is less environmentally friendly than buying store bought in regards to food miles and efficiency. Do you agree with this statement and why or why not?
3) taking into account that organic dairy products have less of an environmental impact, verse conventional dairy products, does this justify the difference in cost?
4) What do you think is a better packaging material in terms of environmental impacts; glass, plastic, or tetra packing? Why?
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