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Copy of KAREN HORNEY AND RELATIONAL THEORY

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Transcript of Copy of KAREN HORNEY AND RELATIONAL THEORY

KAREN HORNEY AND RELATIONAL THEORY
OVERVIEW OF INTERPERSONAL PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
INTERPERSONAL PSYCHOANALYSIS: HORNEY
BASIC ANXIETY AND BASIC HOSTILITY
THREE INTERPERSONAL ORIENTATIONS
FOUR MAJOR ADJUSTMENTS TO BASIC ANXIETY
SECONDARY ADJUSTMENT TECHNIQUES
CULTURAL DETERMINANTS OF DEVELOPMENT
HORNEY’S APPROACH TO THERAPY
PARENTAL BEHAVIOR AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
THE RELATIONAL APPROACH WITHIN PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
THE SENSE OF SELF IN RELATIONSHIPS
NARCISSISM
ATTACHMENT IN INFANCY AND ADULTHOOD
THE RELATIONAL APPROACH TO THERAPY


CHAPTER OVERVIEW
SECONDARY ADJUSTMENT TECHNIQUES

CULTURAL DETERMINANTS OF DEVELOPMENT

1.Gender Roles
Achievement
Social Dominance
Valuing The Feminine Role

2. Cross-Cultural Differences

HORNEY’S APPROACH TO THERAPY
THREE INTERPERSONAL ORIENTATIONS
Moving toward people: Self-effacing solution
Moving against people: Expansive solution
Moving away from people:Resignation solution
Healty versus Neurotic Use of Interpersonal Orientations

FOUR MAJOR ADJUSTMENTS TO BASIC ANXIETY
Eclipsing the Conflict
Detachment
The Idealized Self
Externalization


OVERVIEW OF INTERPERSONAL PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY

INTERPERSONAL PSYCHOANALYSIS: HORNEY
Biography of Karen Horney

BASIC ANXIETY AND BASIC HOSTILITY

Interpersonal approaches inspired empirical research, not only within clinical settings but also studying infants and children as well as adults.

OVERVIEW OF INTERPERSONAL PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
Ideally, a healthy person should be able to
move toward
people,
move against
them, or
move away
from them according to situation.

Child’s choice of one of them becomes the person’s
characteristic interpersonal orientation.

Neurotics are imbalanced in their interpersonal behavior.

What is interpersonal orientation?
SECONDARY ADJUSTMENT TECHNIQUES

KAREN HORNEY
CULTURAL DETERMINANTS
OF
DEVELOPMENT
PARENTAL BEHAVIOR
AND
PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
PARENTAL BEHAVIOR AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

THE SENSE OF SELF IN RELATIONSHIPS

NARCISSISM
The sense of self is central to the understanding of defense mechanisms in relational theory. Defenses serve to protect self-esteem. (Cooper, 1998)
THE SENSE OF SELF IN RELATIONSHIPS
THE RELATIONAL APPROACH WITHIN PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
ATTACHMENT IN INFANCY AND ADULTHOOD

THE RELATIONAL APPROACH TO THERAPY
The relational model was presented as an alternative to Freud’s drive model.

The relational approach emphasizes interpersonal relationships, especially the impact of early relationships with parents.

The mother is more important in relational approach, contrast to Freud’s emphasis on the father.

An important difference between relational theory and traditional psychoanalytic thought is in its theory of motivation, which would "assign primary importance to real interpersonal relations, rather than to instinctual drives".

THE RELATIONAL APPROACH TO THERAPY
SEREN USTA
CANSU SEVİNÇ

MELİS BORA

BAŞAK AYGÖREN

GÜLŞEN KOCABAŞ

HİLAL ALTUNAY

The unconscious is a powerful determinant of personality.

Childhood conflicts

Unresolved interpersonal issues.

Born in Germany in 1885.
The second child in an unhappy marriage.
Strongly independent character.
Entered the University Freiburg.
Studied medicine.

Biography
Married Oskar Horney
Patient of the Freudian analyst
To explore new ideas
Depression, fatigue and dissatisfaction with her marriage

Not only the orthodoxs Fredians who were suspicious of her.
The FBI kept a file on her.

Karen and Oskar had 3 daughters but they are separeted
Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute
Several paper on male and female development, relationship, and marriage.
Conflicted with Freudian therapists and Freud.
Moved to New york and became associate director of a new Institute of Psychoanalysis.

She died of previously undiagnosed abdominal cancer.

BASIC ANXIETY AND BASIC HOSTILITY
Basic anxiety
is feeling of isolation and helplessness resulting from inadequate parenting in infancy.

Basic hostility
is feeling of anger by the young child toward the parents, which must be repressed.

Healthy versus Neurotic Use of Interpersonal Orientations
Healthy person adopts, when
appropriate, any of three orientations.
The neurotic individual is limited in using these orientations.
Interpersonal orientations also influence physical health.

FOUR MAJOR ADJUSTMENTS TO BASIC ANXIETY
Narcissism:
Unhealthy self-focus that impairs the ability to have healthy, emphatic relationships with other people.

Narcissists’ hostility is tied to early shameful experiences. (Heiserman & Cook, 1998)

NARCISSISM
These results show that object relationships are not so fixed in the preschool years as Freud theorized, but instead they continue to develop for many years thereafter.

Secondary adjustment technique in which a person is unaware of behavior inconsistent with the idealized self-image.

BLIND SPOTS:
Secondary adjustment technique in which incompatible behaviors are not simultaneously recognized.

COMPARTMENTALIZATION:
Secondary adjustment technique in which a person explains behaviors in socially acceptable ways.

RATIONALIZATION:
Secondary adjustment technique in which emotions are avoided.

EXCESSIVE SELF-CONTROL:
Secondary adjustment technique in which a person rigidly declares that his or her own view is correct.

ARBITRARY RIGHTNESS :
Secondary adjustment technique in which the moral values of society are rejected.

CYNICISM:
Secondary adjustment technique in which a person avoids commitment to any opinion or action.

ELUSIVENESS:
Women may even develop a ‘fear of success’ that comes from a conflict between competition and the need for affection, leading her to believe that is she succeeds, she will lose her friends.

ACHIEVEMENT
Women, she claimed, are especially likely to become compliant types who do not risk achievement because ‘our cultural situation... Stamps success a man’s sphere’

SOCIAL DOMINANCE
Gender roles profoundly influence the development of social power or dominance
Masochism
Social power determines interpersonal behavior.

Womb Envy:
Men’s envy of women’s reproductive capacity.( The complement of Freud’s penis envy.)

VALUING THE FEMININE ROLE
Horney rejected Freud’s assertion that women reject their bodies as inferior. She argued that culture, rather than anatomy, is the important force behind the ‘penis envy’ Freud has postulated.

Other supporters of women’s roles emphasize the value of interpersonal connectedness and relationship-oriented values like nurturance and empathy.

Individualism

Collectivism
CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES

HORNEY’S APPROACH TO THERAPY
Horney opened the door for realizing that the therapist, too, is influenced by culture, bringing perhaps biased assumption to the understanding of the client.

Horney did not believe all psychoanalytic treatment required delving into childhood recollections.

Horney criticized the Freudian overemphasis on the exploration of childhood origins of neurosis.

Horney advised the therapist to keep bringing the patient back to the present, seeing how neurotic trends influence current life.

One of goals of Horney for psychoanalysis was to advise parents how to raise healthy youths, thus breaking the repeating cycle of neurosis through each generation.

Parents who treated their children with criticism and excessive control produced anxious, poorly adjusted children. (Harrington, 1993)

Parents who expressed affection and encouraged their children produced warm and socially well-adjusted young adults. (Harrington, 1993)


A biological instinct in which proximity to an attachment figure is sought when the child senses or perceives threat or discomfort.

Attachment:
INFANT ATTACHMENT
Between a child and a caregiver, these bonds are based on the child's need for safety, security and protection, paramount in infancy and childhood.
In 1965, Ainsworth and Wittig designed the Strange Situation Procedure as a way of assessing individual differences in attachment behaviour.
Horney regarded the balanced interpersonal mode as most healthy
Are really only your parents ruining your life ??
ATTACHMENT IN INFANCY AND ADULTHOOD
Childhood temperament or any other circumstances related with parents may disturb their attachment.
Interactions between adult romantic partners shared similarities to interactions between children and caregivers.

ADULT ATTACHMENTS
AND
RELATIONSHIPS
LONGITUDINAL STUDIES
OF
ATTACHMENT
Infants and children internalize the significant relationships that they have early in life, and use those early experiences as interpretive filters when they develop later relationships.

Children who have not been adequately nurtured or loved develop a belief that they are not worthy, and this impaired self is at the heart of much pathology.
Adolescents who describe their parents as «ideal parents», are less likely to suffer from a variety of personality disorders
People whose early object relationships are unhealthy because of early physical, sexual, and emotional abuse or other mistreatment are vulnerable to self-destructive behaviors, including suicide. (Twomey, Kaslow & Croft, 2000)

High self-esteem, that is, thinking you are a worthwhile person, is generally a healthy characteristic.

People with high self-esteem may also be more aggressive than other people (Baumeister, Smart & Boden, 1996) at least under some circumstances – specifically, when they are also narcissists and they are insulted. (Bushman et al., 2009)

According to Horney, what are the most important conflicts?

What are the four major adjustments to basic anxiety?
What are the secondary adjustment techniques ?
When narcissists challenged, like insulted, how do they react?
In contrast to Freudian theory relational approach puts more emphasis on _________ rather than ____________.
( masculinity /femininity )
What are other attachment disturbances that prohibit parents from providing their children with warmth and support?

Relationships are often referred to as objects relations in psychoanalysis, based on Freud’s idea that other people serve as the objects that can satisfy libidinal desire.

The relational approach considers the cognitive and effective processes that allow people form health interpersonal relationships or that impede such relationships.

The emotions we expect from relationships can be measured by projective tests as well as by interview measures.

By providing ways of measuring individual’s capacity for healthy relationships researchers are contributing to the dialogue between clinical and research-oriented psychologists.

TIME FOR QUESTIONS
Important Persons in the History of the Relational Approach
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