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What is the best way to motivate preschool, elementary, midd

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tenneal huey

on 5 May 2014

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Transcript of What is the best way to motivate preschool, elementary, midd

Ruby Bridges Elementary School
Alameda, California

C indy Wu
& Interview
Math & Science
Math &Science
Preschool - Science
Explore a Question
Middle School
High School
What is the best way to motivate preschool, elementary, middle, and high school students about learning Math and Science?
Methods: Interview and Observation
Research Findings
- Kindergarden (5-6 years old)
- Has worked there for 14 years
- Head teacher of the elementary school
- Is a mother of three girls
6th and 8th Grade Math Class

6th grade students:
8th grade students:
SJSU Child Development Center

Teacher Eddie - Lead teacher for over 2 years
Classroom: Sequoia - 3 yo-4 yo
Research findings:

Articles' findings
observe - by observation tools
predict - assume things that cannot see
record - through drawing

Milpitas Library
Milpitas High School sudents
Jennifer- a 9th grader
Interviewed based on her Math teacher
Stephanie- a 10th grader
Interviewed based on her Chemistry teacher

Santa Clara Hich School teacher
Vy -Teaches math to 15 to 19 year old students
-Has been teaching for 6 years

What I have discovered?
From Students:
-Making students feel comfortable in class
-Helping students individually
-Making jokes during lectures
-Praising students' effort
-Giving students stamps
-Using recreational methods

From teacher:
- Changing teaching approach
-Providing organized handouts
-Getting students actively involved
-Indicating usefulness of the topic
-Applying to real life experiences
-Giving extra points

Research Findings

Article 1:
Nicol and Crespo (2005) suggest that educators need to:
- teach math in a way it can be applied in students’ everyday life experiences
- think more imaginatively about what counts as a real and meaningful task for their students

Article 2:
Pilcher (1994) claims that since we value high grades, we use them to control students performance.
Teacher: "I will give you the highest number of points you can receive on the assignment if you complete it today."
Thus, students are motivated to perform better to receive high grades or another kind of extrinsic reward, failing to value the leaning process.
Tina: Preschool School Science
Benafsha: Preschool School Math
Tenneal: Elementary School Math and Science
Gabrielle: Middle School Math
Susana: High School Math and Science

Benafsha , Gabrielle, Susanna, Tenneal, & Tina
Bai, H., Pan, W., Hirumi, A., & Kebritchi, M. (2012). Assessing the effectiveness of a 3-D instructional game on improving mathematics achievement and motivation of middle school students. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 43(6), 993-1003. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2011.01269.x

Brenneman, K. & Gelman, R. (2004). Science learning pathways for young children. Early childhood research quarterly, 19, 150-158, doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2004.01.009

Gonzales, E., (2014 March 24). Personal Communication.

Falco, L. D., Crethar, H., & Bauman, S. (2008). Skill-builders: Improving middle school students' self-beliefs for learning mathematics. Professional School Counseling, 11(4), 229-235. doi:10.5330/PSC.n.2010-11.229

Fisher, P., Doctoroff, G., Dobbs-Oates, J., & Arnold, D. (2012). Early Math Interest and
the Development of Math Skills. Journal Of Educational Psychology, 104(3),

Klibanoff, R. S., Levine, S. C., Huttenlocher, J., Vasilyeva, M., & Hedges, L. V. (2006).
Preschool children's mathematical knowledge: The effect of teacher 'math
talk.'.Developmental Psychology, 42(1), 59-69. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.42.1.59

Nicol, C., & Crespo, S. (2005). Exploring mathematics in imaginative places: Rethinking what counts as meaningful contexts for learning mathematics. School Science & Mathematics, 105(5), 240-251

Pilcher, J. K. (1994). The value-driven meaning of grades. Educational Assessment, 2(1), 69-88. doi:10.1207/s15326977ea0201_4

Pinder, P., (2013). Utilizing instructional game as an innovative tool to improve science learning among elementary school students.
Education, 13
3(4), 434-438.

Sackes, M. & Trundle, K. (2009). Using children's luterature to teach standard based science concepts in early years. Early childhood educational journal, 36, 415-422, doi: 10.1007/s10643-009-0304-5

Sedig, K. (2008). From Play to Thoughtful Learning: A Design Strategy to Engage Children With Mathematical Representations.
Journal Of Computers In Mathematics & Science Teaching, 27
(1), 65-101.

Wu, C., (2014 April 3) Personal Communication.

- Hands on activities and visuals i.e. Butterflies - science journals
- Objects to count - Manipulative activties i.e. unfix, multi-links cubes, beads, stickers
- Whole/small group activties i.e. Large number line activity by using a frog and dice - rolling the dice, the number that it landed on is how many spaces the frog jumps.
She use activities to generally motivate her children to learn and get excited. Most of them are hands on because children like to use their hands. To stretch the concepts, she uses written assignments that goes according to the activity.
Children at this age always are motivated to learn. Once in a while there's a student who does not want to do an activity. In those situations, she uses encouragement and occasionally one on one interaction.
Does not give rewards for doing their work because they are all expected to finish the assignments.
Three straw reward system.
Interview & Oberservation findings:
learn from interest & curiosity
explore through play
build new vocabularies from symbolic play
build peers' relationship from sharing
- Topics need to be associated with activities
- Activities should be motivating and engaging
- Game- based environments helps promote Math
- Game activties with formal lectures are effective methods

Background: We were interested in learning why individuals are less motivated to learn about math and science the older they become.
The Catholic Academy of Sunnyvale
-Marybeth Smith
-A mother of 1 girl and 3 boys
-Has been working in this field for 19 years
-She generally teaches middle school students
-Approximately 11 years old
-18 students
-4 boys, 14 girls
-Diverse: White, Indian, Asian, Hispanic
-Approximately 13 years old
-5 students
-All boys
-Diverse: White, Indian, Asian, Hispanic
Research Findings
When teaching her students math, she tries to relate the subject to concepts students are familiar with
She uses blended learning with a rotation model
She sometimes allows students to work on group projects
She believes students are more motivated to learn when they are rewarded
She believes encouragement and praise also help motivate students. She uses praise frequently.
She has strategies to help unmotivated students.
She believes that motivated students: raise their hand, do their homework, have supplies ready, listen and follow directions, ask for help from the teacher or their peers.
She feels that, "all students are motivated by something…teachers need to find out what works for each student and go with it."

Article #1
Article #2
Assessing the effectiveness of a 3-D instructional game on improving mathematics achievement and motivation of middle school students.
To examine the effects of DimensionM, a 3-D math game, on the achievment and motivation of middle school students.
: 445 eighth grade students from a public district in the U.S.
: The DimensionM supplemented
the regular classroom instructions. Those in the control group received regular classroom instruction without DimenionM. However, they did have access to the computer labs to do their homework.
The DimensionM game positively affected the performance of the students in math.
Milpitas Christian Preschool
Preschool- Math
Motivated Students:
No electronics
Raise their hand to ask or answer a question
Follow instructions
Take notes
Help peers
Turn in their work
Listen when the teacher is talking
Teacher Mary- teaching over three years

Unmotivated Students
The oppostive of the above
Talk to their peers instead of listening
Use electronics
Eat in class
Do not take notes
Look out the window
Classroom: Children ages 3 to 4
-There were about 12 students doing their homework.
- After observing them for 30 mins, only 2 students were asked to be interviewed.

*Jennifer & Stephanie were asked to give specific examples of how their teachers motivate them to learn math and chemistry
*Vy was asked a list of questions about her strategies to motivate her students to learn math
March 27, 2014
April 3, 2014
April 4, 2014
Start Time: 8:05 am
End Time: 9:00 am
Start Time: 8:10 am
End Time: 9:05 am
6th Grade Math
Agenda: Lecture, quiz, math games on iPads
Overall, students appeared to be motivated
What might unmotivated behvior look like?
What was the teacher's behavior like?
What strategies did she use?

6th Grade Math
Agenda: Math warm up on iPads, go over homework, individual work, blended learning with a rotation model (2 groups on iPads, teacher works with third group on book problems)
Overall: Students appeared to be motivated
What was the teacher's behavior like and what strategies did she use?
Start Time: 9:05 am
End Time: 10:00 am
8th Grade Math
Agenda: Math game on ipads (competition), blended learning with a rotation model (iPads, credit card problem, interest rate problems)
Louder than the 6th grade students
They all appeared motivated to work
Do not raise their hands as often
What was the teacher's behavior like?
What strategies did she use?
Math & Science
Mary starts a math session called the Fish with the preschoolers. Mary first counts with the preschoolers the number of fishes. Then she starts a song with the preschoolers.
- Reading books that have including counting
- Art activities that include math
- Daily play time provides toys that include some type of math that preschoolers
Articles & Findings:
Mary movitates the preschoolers through daily play, activities, interests, and questions that her preschoolers have.
She sets up daily activities like coloring in numbers, coloring certain number of animals, and arts and craft.
She also provides counting materials like colorful beans, blocks, colorful easers, and colorful buttons.
Skill-builders: Improving middle school students' self-beliefs for learning mathematics.
: To test the effects of a program that aims to promote middle school students' attitudes towards math.
228 sixth grade students from 8 middle school math classes from a public K-8 school in Arizona.
4 of the math classes received the program, while the other 4 served as a comparison group. The curriculum helps build four skills thought necessary for increasing self-efficacy: time management, goal-setting, study habits, and help-seeking.
The groups differed in their attitudes towards learning math. The Skill-Builders group was more confident, had higher enjoyment, and was more motivated.
"Article 1"
According to Fisher, Preschool helps deveolp math skills, that a expected of children to know when they enter kindergartan.
Research indicates that preschools help children develop interest in math and learning in general.

"Article 2"
According Kilbanoff, about 70% of children in the United States are sent to preschool at the age of 4 and it is important to send children at the age of 3 instead.

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