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Iran Revolution 1979

Group C
by

Lawrence Luo

on 17 January 2013

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Transcript of Iran Revolution 1979

The Qajar Dynasty Mohammad Khan Qajar takes over the Afsharid Dynasty in 1796, and declares himself shah. After losing 2 wars with Russia, the Qajar Dynasty begins to decline. Persia (Iran) is almost broke. A New Dynasty 1921-- Reza Khan, an Iran military soldier, seizes control of the capitol (Tehran) with the help of the Cossack brigade- an elite cavalry unit. Britain helps provide ammo. Reza Khan spends the year of 1921 securing the interior of Iran which, in some parts, were against the new government, the main opposition group being the Persian Soviet Socialist Republic. Reza Khan disbands the old government, and secures the interior of Iran. He declares himself the new Shah and calls the new dynasty the Pahlavi Dynasty. Reza's Reforms Reza Shah Pahlavi tries to Westernize Iran due to his fondness of Britain and the U.S. Iran Revolution 1979 by Group C The decisions of the Shah aggravated many citizens. Many of them:
Opposed Westernization
Saw his actions as anti-Islamic In 1941, British and Soviet forces invade Western Iran and force the Shah to abdicate... ...leaving the throne for his son, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi His son continued to carry out his father's "White Revolution"; the series of reforms that consisted of... Khomeini claims that the Shah is trying to rid Iran of Islam. He is sent into exile for 15 years. On Jan 16th, 1976, the Shah flees Iran amid protests and riots. Prior to the Revolution Women are given more rights-- they no longer have to wear veils everywhere, and divorce laws are made more equal for women.
Less power to religious groups (more power to secular groups) ...the Shah didn't get very far without reaching political opposition The Beginning of the Iran 1979 Revolution Reforming land ownership and abolishing feudalism by buying land of feudal lords and selling it to peasants at 30% lower than market value. Land Reforms Result: large numbers of independent farmers who showed no loyalty to the Shah. Goal: gain the support of peasants. White Revolution: The Shah's Plan Allowing women to vote and run for elected office, and eventually they were allowed to serve as lawyers and judges. Women's Suffrage Providing free food to mothers and their children under 2 years of age, in order to decrease the infant mortality rate in Iran. Free Food for Infants Founding the Literacy Corps made it possible for people with high school diplomas that were also required to fight in a war could do so by fighting illiteracy in villages. Literacy Corps Providing free public education and a daily meal to children from kindergarten to 14 years of age would supposedly help the national literacy rate increase. Free Education and Meals Founding of the Health Corps to extend health care to the villages an rural regions of the country. Health Corps Formation of the Reconstruction and Development Corps helped teach villagers how to farm and keep livestock. Reconstruction and Development Corps The Effect of the "White Revolution" Despite all of the Shah's actions to please the public, the reforms mostly ended up:
quadrupling the size of the intelligentsia and the urban working class ( the two classes who oppose the monarchy most)
inspiring Ayatollah Khomeini to start speaking out against the Shah Privatization of the Government Owned Enterprises Creating factories by selling the government shares to the public, creating new class of factory owners. Ayatollah Khomeini Begins to lead Iran revolution against the Shah. Iran 1979: The Classic Revolution Revolutions are an equation. Plug in the variables, and you have history.

The Iran Revolution of 1979, just like the French Revolution and many others, contain the same variables:
a lower class in an already difficult situation, being made even less powerful by another more powerful force
a leader of the more powerful force that has conflicting ideals on society
More powerful force ignores inferior class inequality * conflict + disrespect = revolution
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