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The Rise of the Superpowers 1945-91

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Ms. Mc Caffrey

on 11 March 2018

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Transcript of The Rise of the Superpowers 1945-91

The Rise of the Superpowers 1945-91
The Cold War - The Causes
By the end of this lesson you should know....
Learning Intention
What was the Cold War?
Prior Knowledge
The Superpowers
The Cold War was a time of hostility and tension between the two superpowers, the USA and the USSR. Each side followed policies that were intended to strengthen itself and to weaken the other side, without actually fighting.
The Cold War
The causes of the Cold War
The causes progress and result of the Berlin Blockade
The causes progress and results of the Korean War
The causes progress and results of the Cuban Missile Crisis
The end of the Cold War
The USA ended the war as the world's greatest industrial power.
Unlike the other great powers in the war, America had not been damaged.
The USA had huge resources of population, raw materials and industry.
They were now a superpower.
They were much more powerful than Britain, France, Germany and Japan.
The USSR had suffered enormously during the war. However, at the end of the war they had the largest army in the world.
The USSR had huge resources of population, raw materials and industry.
They were now a superpower.
They were much more powerful than Britain, France, Germany and Japan.
The Cold War
Because these countries were so powerful, they dragged other countries into the dispute as allies or supporters.
This tension was the cause of crises and conflicts in many different parts of the world.
These crises brought the world to the brink of a third world war on a number of occasions between 1945 and 1991.
What Caused the World War?
1) Political Differences
Governments in Western Europe and America had feared the spread of communism since Lenin took over Russia in 1917.
There were huge differences in political ideas between countries in the West and Communist Russia.
Each side feared the other. Each country believed the other was trying to destroy its way of life.
Communism vs Capitalism
USSR and Communism
USA and Capitalism
One party dictatorship with only the Communist Party allowed.
Government ownership of business and industry.
Different political parties allowed in a democratic system of government.
Private ownership of business and industry.
What Caused the Cold War?
2. Disagreements During World War 2
Even though the Allies worked together to defeat Hitler, they also had disagreements.
Stalin felt the West deliberately delayed the invasion of France (D-Day) so that Russia would suffer as it continued to fight Germany.
America refused to share the secrets of the atomic bomb with Russia, and this increased Stalin's suspicion of America's intentions.
What Caused the Cold War?
3. Post War Disagreements
After the war Stalin's main aim was to build a buffer zone (a protective zone) along the western border of his country.
He intended to take over or control the countries of Eastern Europe so that the Soviet Union would be protected from the West.
As the Soviet army liberated Eastern European countries from Hitler, Stalin imposed Communist controlled governments in all the Eastern European countries including Poland, Czechslovakia and Hungary.
These countries became 'satellite states' (states within the soviet sphere of influence.)
3. Post War Disagreements
While Stalin felt that he was only defending the Soviet Union, the USA and its allies looked on this as Soviet aggression and expansionism.
Winston Churchill made a speech labelling the expansion by the Soviet Union as the 'Iron Curtain'.
The Soviets felt that he was stirring up hatred against them.
What Caused the Cold War?
4. The Truman Doctrine
America brought in a new policy - The Truman Doctrine.
It was to help countries resist the spread of communism.
In 1947 400million in aid was promised to Greece and Turkey.
American foreign policy during the Cold War was based on the idea of containment. To contain the spread of communism.
What Caused the Cold War?
5. The Marshall Plan
The Truman Doctrine was followed by the Marshall Plan.
It was believed the USA must assist the economic recovery of Europe to stop the spread of communism.
A wealthy Europe would also provide a market for American products.
All European countries were invited to apply for funding under the Plan, also known as the European Recovery Program.
Stalin was suspicious of the Marshall Plan, he prevented countries in Eastern Europe from applying for aid.
Instead Stalin set up Comecon to provide Soviet aid to Communist countries.
Can you name the five causes of the Cold War?
Full transcript