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Matter

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by

Jeff Berg

on 3 October 2017

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Transcript of Matter

Matter
... its what stuff is made of!
Matter
is anything that has
mass
and takes
up
space
.
LT #9 - I can identify the
physical properties of matter.
Matter is made of
particles called atoms
.
Is anything not made of Matter?
Yes! Things that are not made up of atoms.
Things that have no mass or volume.
Mass
is a
measure
of how much
matter

an object contains.
Which will have more mass?
Plastic fork
Metal fork
Which will have more mass a box of pennies or a box of feathers?
Why?
Volume
is the
amount
of space that
an

object
takes up.
A
physical property
is a characteristic of a
substance
that can
observed
without
changing
the identity of the substance.
If you take a bar of gold and melt it and pound it into the shape of a gold medal is it still gold?
If you take some wood and cut it into pieces
and then make it smooth is it still wood?
These examples of physical properties don't change the
identity of the substance when they change:
color, shape, size, texture, volume, mass, density
List several physical properties of this duck
Does stretching a rubber band change
what it is made out of?
No!
While it has a different shape
it is still made out of rubber.
How could you change
physical properties of a
piece of clay?
Shape

Texture

Mass

Color
Mold it

Scratch it; use a knife to add detail

Cut it in half

Paint it or glaze it
LT #9 Summary
- Matter has
mass
and
volume
and can be described by its
physical properties
.
9
10
LT #10 - I can explain the difference between an atom and a molecule.
Atoms
are the
smallest
basic
unit
of
matter
.
Atoms are

extremely
small.

Matter is
made
of
atoms
.

Molecules
are
two
or more
atoms
bonded/combined
together
.
&
the
smallest
amount of a
substance
that is still considered to be that
substance
.
Water
Structure of an atom
Proton
- a
positively
charged particle
Neutron
-
uncharged
particle
Electron
-
negatively
charged particle,

outside
of the nucleus
Nucleus
- the
center
of an
atom
that contains all of the protons and neutrons.
LT #10 Summary
- Atoms are the smallest basic building blocks of matter. When atoms are combined with other atoms, they form molecules.
11
LT #11 - I can identify the arrangement of
particles in solids, liquids, and gases.
Where is the nucleus of the oxygen atom
in this water molecule?
The
states of matter
are the
different
forms at which
matter
can exist.
A
solid
is a substance that has a
fixed
shape and a fixed
volume
.
A
liquid
is a substance that has a fixed
volume
but
no
fixed
shape.
A
gas
is a substance that has
no
fixed volume and no fixed
shape
.
solid
liquid
gas
A solid is like the...
crowded theater seats
little movement
people stay in place
A liquid is like the...
lobby
limited space to move
slowly

walls limit how far you
can go
A gas is like the...
outside the theater
move as far and as
fast as you want
Atoms are made of mostly
empty space
!
Compare the phases of matter to the different areas in a movie theater (p. 29 in your text book).
SOLIDS
The molecules in a
solid
are in
fixed
positions and are
close together
.
Although the molecules can still
vibrate
, they
can't
move from
one part
of the
solid
to
another
part.
The particles in some
solids
occur in a
very
regular pattern
.
LIQUIDS
A liquid has a
definite volume
but
does not have a
definite shape
.
Liquids take the
shape
of their
containers
.
Molecules in a liquid are
close
together
, but they are not
tightly
attached
.
GAS
Gas is a
substance
with
no
definite
volume
and no
definite shape
.
A gas has a
volume
that changes to match the
volume
of its
container
.
If we put a small amount smoke into this container
will it just fill the bottom of the container?
No - the smoke will continue to spread out until the container is full of smoke. Gases do not have fixed volumes.
The
molecules
in a gas are
very
far apart
. The amount of
space
between the
molecules
in a
gas
can change
easily
.
LT 11 Summary -
Particles in solids, liquids, and
gases have special characteristics. All matter
is made of moving particles.
12 & 13
14
When
matter
changes from one
state
of matter to
another, the substance does not change.
A
Phase Change
is...
What changes are the
arrangement
of the
particles/molecules and the amount of
space
between the particles/molecules.
Melting
is the process by which a
solid
becomes
a
liquid
.
Different solids
melt
at different
temperatures
.
As a solid heats up, the particles
gain
energy and
move
faster. If the vibrations are
fast
enough, the
particles break loose.
Melting point of water is
0
degrees Celsius
Did anyone see the blacksmith at River Rendezvous?
Freezing
is the process by which a
liquid
becomes a

solid
.
As the temperature of a liquid
decreases
,
the particles
lose
energy, and begin to move
more
slowly
. The particles may move slow
enough to become a
solid
.
Freezing point of water is
0
degrees Celsius.
Does candle wax
freeze at a higher
or lower temperature
than water?
Higher - it freezes at room temperature.
Evaporation
is the process by which a
liquid
becomes a
gas
.
As the temperature
increases
, the energy
in the liquid
increases
. More particles can
escape from the surface of the
liquid
.
Sublimation
is the process by which a
solid
turns
directly into a
gas
.
Boiling
is the process by which a
liquid
becomes a
gas
by producing
bubbles
.
Condensation
is the process by which a
gas
changes its
state to become a
liquid
.
When you
cool
a gas, it loses
energy
. The
particles move more
slowly
.
The
Kinetic Theory of Matter
states that all of the
particles
that make up matter are constantly in
motion
.
Temperature
is a measure of the average
kinetic
energy (energy of motion) of the
particles in an object.
Substances at a
higher
temperature




particles move
faster
because they
have
more
energy.
Substances at a
lower
temperature




particles move
slower
because they
have
less
energy.
LT 12/13 Summary -
Matter
can change from one state to
another when the
energy
of the particles
increases
or
decreases
.
The
Particle Model of Matter
All matter is made up of particles that are always in
motion.
How the particles
are
positioned
and
spaced
affects the matter
it makes up.
Dissolving
Diffusion
Compression
Density
Thermal Expansion
LT 14 Summary -
As particles in matter
move apart
or
closer together
observable changes occur in matter.
Arrangement
of the particles affects how matter interacts with other matter.
A
physical change
is the
action
of changing a
physical property.







Example:
painting the pot is a physical change

color is the physical property
A
chemical change
is the action of one type of matter
changing
into another type of matter.

Preview the Dissolving questions before watching the videos.
Preview the Diffusion questions before watching the video.
Preview the Compression questions before watching the videos.
Preview the Density questions before watching the videos.
Preview the Thermal Expansion questions before watching the video.
Which detergent dissolved into the water faster?
Grab Green
What happened to the big salt crystal when put in the water molecules?
It broke into smaller pieces spread throughout the water.
Are the solid particles in the videos still in the liquid?

Are they packed together or spread out in the liquid?

Yes
Spread out
When he drops in the soap it allows the food coloring to spread out and not stay together, what happens to how dark the colors are and why?
The color gets lighter because the food coloring particles
are spread out more evenly in the milk.
Did the food coloring particles go from high concentration to low concentration, or from low concentration to high concentration?
High concentration to Low concentration
What happens to the balloon when the particles inside it are cooled down and lose energy?
It collapses and gets smaller.
How did all four balloon animals fit in the small can of liquid nitrogen?
The particles in the balloon packed closer together
because they have less energy.
Describe what is happening to the spacing of the particles during compression.
Particles are moving closer and closer together.
Which is less dense the cannonball or the mercury?
The cannonball
Which layer has the particles that are the closest together?
Honey
What layer has the least amount of particles in the same amount of space?
Red (least amount of sugar)
If you had an object that had less particles per square centimeter than water would it sink or float?
It would float.
What happens to the metal ring when it is heated?


Do particles move closer together when heated or farther apart?

It gets bigger.
farther apart
Full transcript