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Causes of the Civil War
Transcript of Causes of the Civil War
When Missouri wanted to request admission to the Union, there were eleven free states and ten slave states, and everyone expected Missouri would become the eleventh slave state. But the government admitted Alabama instead so Missouri's status because crucial to the delicate balance. The Missouri Compromise was a series of collective arguments by congress deciding to admit Maine as a free state at the same time as Missouri, therefore maintaining the balance between the North and South. It was also decided that 36°30' north latitude would be a dividing line of slavery. It would be allowed in the South and banned in the North. This determined the two sides of the civil war and completely separated the American people in readinesss for the war. 1828 Tariffs of Abomination
After the War of 1812 British manufacturers wanted to destroy their American competitors. They sold really cheap goods to America so people would buy from the British instead of the North. To protect the North’s industry and the economy, America put a tariff (tax) on British goods. This tariff increased the cost of British goods by almost 40% and was increased in 1824 and 1828. The South called it the tariff of abomination because it forced them to pay for expensive northern goods. The South felt like the north was getting rich off of them. This event increased the tension between the North and the South which would eventually lead up to the Civil War. 1858-The Lecompton Constitution
The Lecompton Constitution was a document stating that Kansas could be a slave state. The constitution was supported by President James Buchanan and other slave supporters, then Kansas voted and rejected it and the document was not passed and Kansas was a free state. The constitution caused conflicts and boycotting. This was one of the most important constitutions for slavery. get out of here 1838-Underground Railroad
The Underground Railroad was started after the Fugitive Slave Act, which enraged many slaves and caused them to revolt. Harriet Tubman was a slave who freed herself when she ran away to Philadelphia and led the Underground Railroad; a secret trail of safe houses that led slaves to freedom. No slaves were caught when with Harriet Tubman, but there were many risks of being caught. Slave owners were enraged, Harriet Tubman was wanted everywhere and the North were helping free and house slaves, and the South were fed up. There were conductors who led slaves to safe houses and food. The slaves would go from safe house to safe house on a trail given secretly until they reached a free state and freedom. Slave owners in the South became angry because the North took in their fugitive slaves which angered them further. hello 1832-Tariff of 1832 and the Nullification Crisis
The Tariff of 1832 was passed as a response
to the Tariff of 1828. The Tariff of 1832 reduced the Tariff of 1828 by 10 percent. However, the South was still not satisfied. South Carolina was hit especially by this tariff because they didn't have much economic stability. They ratified the Ordinance of Nullification which annulled all tariffs on foreign goods. The legislature passed several laws to enforce the ordinance. For example, approval for raising a military force and appropriations for arms. In response, on December 10th, Jackson issued a proclamation against the nullifiers. In congress Henry Clay made a compromise which stated that all taxes of 20 percent of the value of the goods imported were to be slowly reduced, so that by 1842, the taxes would be as low as they were in 1816. The Nullification Crisis attributed to the Civil War because the southern states felt they didn't have enough say in the government. 1850/60-Political Parties
This was a time for the start of many political parties. Some parties with strong opinions on slavery were the Free-Soil party and the Republican party. The Free-Soil party started in 1848 and was against the extending of slavery. The Republian party started in 1854, and they were opposed to slaves expanding to territories. These groups determined very opinionated sides on slavery and united people of the same beliefs on the issue. 1852-Uncle Tom's Cabin
Uncle Tom’s Cabin was written in 1852 by Harriet Beecher Stowe, who was heavily against slavery. Uncle Tom’s Cabin told a graphic and moving story the reality and moral struggle of slavery. The actual book is about a hypothetical story; a slave, Eliza, running from her slave owner. Uncle Tom’s Cabin was a big controversy because it made northern abolitionists hat slavery even more and they protested greatly against the Fugitive Slave Act. Southerners became angry about how the book attacked and criticized the South. It made stonger opposing opinions in the North and South and recieved mixed signals but was a bestseller. 1846-Wilmot Proviso
The Wilmot Proviso was an amendment to a bill brought to the House of Representatives during the Mexican War. It provided about $2 million to enable President Polk to negotiate a territorial settlement with Mexico. David Wilmot introduced an amendment to the bill arranging that none of the territory they got in the Mexican War should be open to slavery. The amended bill was passed in the House, but the Senate ended without voting on it. In the next session of Congress (1847), Wilmot again proposed an antislavery amendment to the new bill, but when it reached the Senate, they excluded it. The Wilmot Proviso created great bitterness between North and South and helped solidify the conflict over the extension of slavery. 1854-Kansas-Nebraska Act
There was much tension between Kansas and Nebraska over slave territory. So, in 1854 Stephen Douglas proposed they divide Kansas in the south and Nebraska in the north. He proposed a bill and the congress had many debates over whether to pass it, so in May 1854 it became a law called the Kansas- Nebraska Act. 1850-Compromise of 1850
The Compromise of 1850 was a series of five bills that were intended to avoid sectional strife. Its goal was to deal with the spread of slavery to territories to keep northern and southern interests in balance. First California was entered to the Union as a free state. Then New Mexico and Utah were allowed to pick whether the states would be free or slave, called popular sovereignty. Also, Texas gave up lands that it claimed in present day New Mexico and received $10 million to pay its debt to Mexico. Fourth, the slave trade ended in the District of Columbia, and lastly, the Fugitive Slave Act made federal officials who did not arrest a runaway slave pay a fine. This was the most controversial and conflicting part of the Compromise of 1850 so it caused many abolitionists to increase their efforts against slavery. 1848 End of the US-Mexican War
At the end of the Mexican War, America gained new western territories. All of the southern states wanted the territories to be slave states, and all of the northern states wanted them to be free. This was a major conflict between the North and the South. To resolve this conflict, Congress passed the Compromise of 1850 which led to other conflicts concluding to the spark of the Civil War.
Abraham Lincoln Elected-1860
The election of Abraham Lincoln was a controversy, and was one contributor to the war. One view he had was that the “Slaves will never be free unless there is a war," as told by Lincoln. He was very anti-slavery and this rubbed the South the wrong way, although most of the North agreed with him. He promised to end slavery expansion in his election speeches and won the election. His goal was to rejoin the nation. He caused the Union to gain the “border slave states” and closely watched the war. Some republicans disagreed with Lincolns methods and thought the South deserved more punishment. 1859-John Brown's Raid of Harper's Ferry
John Brown, an abolitionist studying slave uprisings had secretly obtained financial support from several Northern abolitionists. On October 16, 1959, he led a party of 21 men (black and white) into the town of Harper's Ferry, Virginia to seize the federal arsenal there, distribute them to slaves in the area, and start a general slave uprising. No slaves came forth to aid him and they faced the local troops that killed several of his men. When reinforcements came in to back up the troops, they captured Brown andhe was tried for treason. Brown hoped his actions would arouse Northern fury and start a war for abolition.
1861 Succession of the South
Southerners fear their voice was lost when Lincoln won the election because Lincoln was against slavery. Southerners took action and pulled out of the Union. The South was committed to being heard, and to some this meant being independent and free from federal control. Southerners feared Lincoln's decisions would change their way of life in a bad way. South Carolina led the way, and Mississippi was next to follow along with Texas, Louisiana, Georgina, Alabama, and Florida and the South claimed its freedom. The succession of the South completely seperated the North and the South, which sparked the first battles of the Civil War. 1853-Bleeding Kansas
On May 24th, John Brown and his followers pulled five men from their beds in the proslavery settlement of Pottawatomie Creek, hacked off their hands, and stabbed them with broadswords. This attack became know as the "Pottawatomie Massacre" and soon led to Southerners wanting revenge. The massacre triggered triggered dozens of incidents throughout Kansas killing around 200 people. John Brown fled Kansas but people began calling the territory Bleeding Kansas, as it becomes a violent battlefield in the civil war. le fin