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Pragmatic meaning; Grice’s Cooperative Principle
Transcript of Pragmatic meaning; Grice’s Cooperative Principle
Other related forms of language analysis
socio-linguistics(generalization, a societal level, finding correlation between a particular group and their language use)
conversation analysis(structure of talk and its subsystem: turn taking, adjacency pairs, repairs, and sequences)
discourse analysis(text issues beyond individual sentences or utterances)
ethnography of speaking(natural language use in speech events, cultural influence and constraints)
Principles of pragmatic meaning
Chapter 1 Defining The Territory
Cytstal(1985) define pragmatics as "the study of language from the view of users, especially the choices they make, the constraints they encounter in using language in social interaction and the effects their use of language has on other participants in the act of communication"(p.7)
Difference between Semantics
In semantic analysis, the linguistic form well has no denotative meaning, nor does it contribute to the truthfulness of the utterance.(p.11)
Mey states"why people say what they do, rather than whether or not the content of their utterance is truthful"
Speaker's meaning, intended communicative message from in what is said context
What Does Pragmatics Study?
A speaker's decision-making involves
word choice, syntactic structures, prosodic contours, constraints on how to address the listener in the context, and the possible effect on the listener.(p.8)
Scholars in pragmatics strive to describe the
principles and theories that underlie how
human achieve utterance interpretation
and production. (p.8)
phatic communication functions
the extent to which strategies for interpreting
speaker meaning are universal or culture specific
indirectness does require more cognitive processing(p.9)
cognitive processing models:
Sperber & Wilson(1986)'s Relevance Theory:
degree of inferencing
a ubiquitous feature of language use,
arguably universal, yet controversial
when comparing an average person's definition of politeness with that of scholars(p.9)
How does Pragmatics study language?
requires data collected in the everyday, real world contexts of language in use. ... The point is to acquire data of talk that is the most natural and closest to how people think they speak.(p.10)
includes details about the contexts of each data sample: the gender, age , and ethnicity of each participant, aspects of the physical setting, the time of day, social status aspects, among others.(p.10)
Research methodologies are derived from the qualitative paradigm that informs anthropology, discourse analysis and sociolinguistics.
Meaning is created by interaction between speakers and hearers.
Context includes both linguistic and non-linguistic feature
Choices made by the users of languages are an important concern
Constraints (who can say what to whom) in using language in social action are significant
The effects of choices on co-participants are studied.
sentence and utterance meaning
use (linguistic action that may not conform to the norms of a language and its users )and usage(what is usually "done" in a particular social context)
linguistic context: all of the language, before and after, the particular instance that is they subject of analysis.
non-linguistic context: non-verbal features (paralinguistic cues: voice quality, stress and intonation contours, and pragmatic markers) and the setting(aspects of the physical environment and of the individuals)
reference and indexicality
reference: the act of referring to speaker
indexicality: a phenomenon of language , it refers to the potential meanings that are implicitly attached to a word.
small words that point via language to terms, persons and places in the context of utterance are examples of deixis.
categories of deixis
spatial: space and movement
（direction& distance ）
temporal: the time of an event relative to the actual time of speaking about it
social: encode social status differences (tu/vous;du/sie)
discourse: "the encoding of reference to portions of the unfolding discourse in which the utterance is located(Levinson 1983,p92)"
types of reference:
exophoric (signal some entity outside)
anaphora: requires listeners to work backwards in the text to find the antecedent of referent
cataphora: further along in the text
zero anaphora: the referent is ellipted