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History of Art Course Green Hill Part 3

Art History for beginners

dan shread

on 7 March 2013

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Transcript of History of Art Course Green Hill Part 3

Claude Lorraine
1604/5? - 1682
Seaport with the Embarkation
of the Queen of Sheba
Oil on Canvas
National Gallery Neo-Classicism Louis XIV Hyacinthe Rigaud 1659–1743 Baroque Self-portrait in a turban, 1698 17th Century France Italy England Giambattista Tiepolo 1696–1770 The Death of Hyacinthus
Oil on canvas Rosalba Carriera 1675 – 1757
and Pastel Portraits Self-Portrait as Winter
pastel on paper Pastel portraiture was introduced by Rosalba Carriera in around 1720 Chardin Self-Portrait
with an Eyeshade
Pastel on blue paper,
46 x 38 cm
Musée du Louvre,
Paris CHARDIN, Jean-Baptiste-Siméon
(b. 1699, Paris, d. 1779, Paris) Capriccio Alexander Cozens
1717 – 1786 Jean-Honoré Fragonard
Born: April 5, 1732, Grasse
Died: August 22, 1806, Paris Giovanni Battista Piazzetta
1682 or 1683 – 1754 John Robert Cozens
1752 – 14 December 1797 The Watercolourists Thomas Gainsborough Joshua Reynolds 1723-1792 George Romney
1734-1802 George Stubbs Jacques-Louis David
30 August 1748 – 29 December 1825 Oath of the Horatii (1784)

David was in active sympathy with the Revolution, becoming a Deputy and voting for the execution of Louis XVI. His position was unchallenged as the painter of the Revolution. His three paintings of `martyrs of the Revolution', though conceived as portraits, raised portraiture into the domain of universal tragedy. They were: The Death of Lepeletier (now known only from an engraving), The Death of Marat (Musées Royaux, Brussels, 1793), and The Death of Bara (Musée Calvet, Avignon, unfinished). After the fall of Robespierre (1794), however, he was imprisoned, but was released on the plea of his wife, who had previously divorced him because of his Revolutionary sympathies (she was a royalist). They were remarried in 1796, and David's Intervention of the Sabine Women (Louvre, 1794-99), begun while he was in prison, is said to have been painted to honor her, its theme being one of love prevailing over conflict. It was also interpreted at the time, however, as a plea for conciliation in the civil strife that France suffered after the Revolution and it was the work that re-established David's fortunes and brought him to the attention of Napoleon, who appointed him his official painter. Marat Assassinated
Oil on canvas
165 x 128.3 cm (65 x 50 1/2 in);
Musees Royaux
des Beaux-Arts de Belgique Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo, Apollo and the Continents, 1750-1753, Fresco (Residenz Palace, Würzburg, Germany) Piranesi Puck
1789 Portrait of Mrs. Stanhope Portrait of Francis Barber Omai
1776 “In Reynold’s portrait Omai wears flowing white robes, clothes that to European eyes resemble a classical toga. However, as Pacific historians have pointed out, they do relate to Tahitian dress, the sash and turban probably being made of tapa, a cloth made from tree bark. The robes were probably of Omai’s own creation, designed to reinforce the view that he was of high rank in his own society. Omai is thus endowed with what Reynolds referred to as a ‘general air of the antique’. At the same time, Reynolds makes no attempt to disguise the tattoos on Omai’s hands and arms, which remain in full view ‘for the sake of likeness’.Omai’s gestures do not imply command but rather are used to display, like stigmata, the body markings that indelibly single him out from his European counterparts. Thus, Reynolds ennobles Omai using the vocabulary of Western art, while at the same time drawing attention to the features which distinguish him from Western society.”

Martin Postle, ed. Joshua Reynolds: The Creation of Celebrity. Exhibition catalogue. London: Tate, 2005, 218. Francis Williams, born around 1702, was apparently the youngest of the three sons of John and Dorothy Williams, Free Blacks, who, in 1708, with their sons, were granted by the House of Assembly the privilege of not being subject to slave evidence in court, a status usually reserved for Whites.

About 1716, the Governor, the Duke of Montague, proposed an experiment to find out whether a Black man could equal a White man if he was given the same education and opportunities. He chose Francis Williams, and sent him to England, first to a grammar school, and then to the University of Cambridge, where he made considerable progress in mathematics and other branches of science, and also in the classics, an essential part of the education of an 18th century gentleman. He wrote a considerable quantity of Latin poetry in the style of the day, often addressed to Governors of Jamaica. After several years Williams returned to Jamaica, where he opened a school in Spanish Town, the capital of Jamaica, under the Governor's patronage. He taught reading, writing, Latin, and the elements of mathematics. He trained one of his Black pupils to take over the school. Possibly Coloured and poorer White citizens of the capital may have disregarded Williams' colour and sent their boys to be taught by a Cambridge educated scholar.

It seems that Williams died around 1770. Sadly the teacher he had trained to continue to run the school had some kind of mental break-down and there seem to be no further references to the school. http://jamaicanhistorymonth2007.moonfruit.com/#/francis-williams/4519580316 Thomas Gainsborough's oil on canvas,
'Portrait of Ignatius Sancho',
1768 Thomas Gainsborough
That Thomas Gainsborough - one of Britain's most fashionable artists and highly sought after by aristocratic sitters - should have painted this subject is testimony to Ignatius Sancho's elevated status in British society.

Sancho was born around 1729 on board a slave ship en route to the West Indies. Orphaned in infancy, he was brought to England by his master at the age of two or three and given to three maiden sisters living in Greenwich. The sisters named him Sancho, thinking he resembled Don Quixote's squire. They kept him in ignorance, not teaching him to read or write.

He was rescued by the duke of Montagu, who lived nearby in Blackheath. The duke, encountering the boy by accident, took a liking to his frankness of manner. Sancho eventually ended up working as a butler in the Montagu household, where the patronage and encouragement of the duke and duchess inspired his creativity.

Sancho wrote poetry, stage plays, and a theory of music, and composed songs and minuets for violin, mandolin, flute and harpsichord. An annuity left to him by the duchess enabled him to set up a grocery shop in Charles Street, Westminster. The shop became a meeting place for artists, musicians, and writers. Sancho's friends included David Garrick, the theatre owner and Shakespearean actor; Lawrence Sterne, the novelist; and Joseph Nollekens, the sculptor.

Gainsborough depicts Sancho as a genial, relaxed and self-assured figure. His brick-red waistcoat and the painting's rich brown background exude a warmth which is indicative of the sitter's character. He is an individual, not a type. Although in service to the Montagu household, Sancho is not painted in livery, but in a fashionable waistcoat with gold brocade edging and necktie. His 'hand-in-waistcoat' pose, common in 18th-century portraits of English gentlemen, reveals him to be a man of social standing. William Hogarth
1697 – 1764 Marriage A-la-Mode 2 The Tête à Tête: Thomas Lawrence

Sarah Barrett Moulton: Pinkie
oil on canvas
148 × 102 cm (58.3 × 40.2 in)
The Huntington Library
San Marino, CA L'Enseigne de Gersaint
Oil on canvas
(1720-1778) Invenzione Capric
Tues Carceri c. 1749/50 Canaletto Northumberland House
Oil on Canvas
1752 Westminster Bridge
from the North on
Lord Mayor's Day. Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini 1675- 1741 Rebecca at the Well
Oil on Canvas One of the first travelling artists
from Venice arriving in London in 1708 Rebecca at the Well (first half of 18thc
Oil on Canvas The Southern Netherlands Caravaggio's Supper at Emmaus
c. 1600-01; Oil on canvas,
54 3/4 x 76 3/4 in;
National Gallery, London Jacob Van Ruisdael
c. 1628 – 1682 Wheat Fields 1670 Vermeer 1632 – 1675 Woman Holding a Balance
Oil on Canvas
1664, National Gallery of Art Washington Sir Peter Paul Rubens
1577 – 1640 Self Portrait
1623 Between 1627 and 1630, Rubens's diplomatic career was particularly active, and he moved between the courts of Spain and England in an attempt to bring peace between the Spanish Netherlands and the United Provinces. He also made several trips to the northern Netherlands as both an artist and a diplomat. At the courts he sometimes encountered the attitude that courtiers should not use their hands in any art or trade, but he was also received as a gentleman by many. It was during this period that Rubens was twice knighted, first by Philip IV of Spain in 1624, and then by Charles I of England in 1630. He was awarded an honorary Master of Arts degree from Cambridge University in 1629.[19]
The Fall of Man 1628–29. Prado, Madrid

Rubens was in Madrid for eight months in 1628–1629. In addition to diplomatic negotiations, he executed several important works for Philip IV and private patrons. He also began a renewed study of Titian's paintings, copying numerous works including the Madrid Fall of Man (1628–29).[20] During this stay, he befriended the court painter Diego Velázquez and the two planned to travel to Italy together the following year. Rubens, however, returned to Antwerp and Velázquez made the journey without him.[21] Isabella Brant The Honeysuckle Bower (ca. 1609)
Oil on canvas
Alte Pinakothek, Munich Isabella Brant ( 1591– 1626) was a Flemish artists' model, the first wife of painter Peter Paul Rubens. She was the daughter of Jan Brant, an important city official in Antwerp, and Clara de Moy. Brant married Rubens on 3 October 1609 in Saint Michael's Abbey, Antwerp. They had three children: Clara, Nikolaas and Albert. She was 34 years old when she died of the plague. A View of Het Steen in the Early Morning
Oil on Canvas
National Gallery Rubens married Helena Fourment on December 6, 1630, when he was fifty-three and she was sixteen. Helena became the model and the inspiration for many paintings by Rubens dating from the 1630s, particularly those dealing with themes of ideal beauty or love. They had five children. The child's blue sash, heavy shoes, and plain collar resemble adult male attire and suggest that he is either Frans Rubens, born in 1633, or, more likely, Peter Paul, born March 1, 1637. The parrot, long a symbol of the Virgin Mary, suggests ideal motherhood, while the fountain, caryatid, and garden setting imply fertility and recall Rubens's own garden in Antwerp, where he frequently escorted Helena. Rembrandt Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn
1606 - 1669 Landscape Group portraits Hobbema
Meindert Hobbema (bapt. 1638 – 1709 The Avenue at Middelharnis, 1689, Frans Hals 1582 – 1666 Night Watch
Oil on Canvas
Amsterdam EVERDINGEN, Caesar van
(b. 1617, Alkmaar, d. 1678, Haarlem)
Officers and Standard-Bearers of the Old Civic Guard
1657 c.1636-38 Portrait of the Artist at His Easel
Oil on canvas
43 1/2 x 35 1/2" (111 x 90 cm)
Musée du Louvre, Paris Self-Portrait 1661
Oil on canvas, 114 x 94 cm The Syndics of the Amsterdam Drapers' Guild, known as the ‘Sampling Officials’. De_Staalmeesters
oil on canvas Catherina Hooft and Her Nurse,
ca. 1620 The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp
1632 Etching,
Jan Cornelis Sylvius,
1633 The Jewish Bride
Oil on Canvas
Rijks museum
Amsterdam Self-Portrait Leaning on a Stone Sill
1639 Pieter de Hooch 1629-after1684 A Woman bathing in a Stream
(Hendrickje Stoffels?)
National Gallery The model is probably Hendrickje Stoffels (about 1625/6 - 1663). She lived in Rembrandt's household from about 1649 until her death. She became his common-law wife and bore him a daughter, Cornelia, who was baptised on 30 October 1654 (the year of this painting). Still Life Pieter Claesz
Still Life
1625-30 Venus Mars and Cupid
mid 1630s
Dulwich Picture Gallery Portrait of René Descartes
Oil on Canvas
old copy of a lost original
Paris Titian's Supper at Emmaus Saskia van Uylenburgh in Arcadian Costume
Oil on Canvas
National Gallery,
London Saskia van Uylenburgh (1612 - 1642), the daughter of a burgomaster of Leeuwarden in Friesland, married Rembrandt in 1634 and brought him a large dowry. They had met in the studio of her cousin Hendrick Uylenburgh, who was Rembrandt's employer after his arrival in Amsterdam. Of their four children, only Titus was alive at the time of her death in 1642.
Rembrandt painted this portrait in the year after their wedding. In showing Saskia as Flora, the Roman goddess of Spring, he reflected the contemporary fashion for Arcadian and rustic themes, which could be found in poems and plays as well as in painting. Rembrandt's Supper at Emmaus
Oil on panel
68 x 65 cm
1648. France The Fortune Teller,
probably 1630s
Oil on canvas Georges de La Tour
1593–1652 The Le Nain brothers Neo-Classicism The Forge
Nicolas Poussin 1594–1665 Et In Arcadia Ego1637–1638Oil on canvas87 cm × 120 cm
34.25 in × 47.24 in Musée du Louvre
Paris Le Nain brothers, three brothers best known for their paintings of peasant life. The work of Antoine Le Nain (b. c. 1588, Laon, France—d. May 25, 1648, Paris), Louis Le Nain (b. c. 1600, Laon, France—d. May 23, 1648, Paris), and Mathieu Le Nain (b. 1607, Laon, France—d. April 20, 1677, Paris) exhibits a realism unique in 17th-century French art.

By 1630 the Le Nain brothers had established a common workshop in Paris. They remained unmarried and are traditionally said to have worked in harmony, often collaborating on the same picture. In 1648 all were received into the newly founded French Academy. The “Le Nain problem” of determining which of them painted what is complicated because no signed work bears a first initial and no work completed after 1648 is dated. Evaluation of the three personalities early in the 20th century was therefore based on what was traditionally known of each brother and on the dubious establishment of three stylistic groups. Art scholars today no longer try to attribute individual works, and the three brothers are treated as a single artist. Their portraits of peasants and beggars remain their most important works, although A Blacksmith in His Forge was one of the most-admired and most-copied paintings in the Louvre in the 19th century. Their domestic scenes of peasant life depict humble people with human dignity, with a classical composure that is characteristically French.
The Encyclopaedia Britannica Peasant Interior1642oil on canvasHeight: 55.6 cm (21.9 in). Width: 64.7 cm (25.5 in)
National Gallery of Art
Washington D.C. Spain Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velazquez 1599-1660 Las Meninas 1656
Oil on Canvas Philip IV The Infanta Margarita England
Portrait of Abraham van der Doort
Oil on Canvas William Dobson
Sir Anthony van Dyck,
(1599-1641) Charles I
c. 1635;
Oil on canvas,
266 x 207 cm;
Musée du Louvre, Paris Jean Antoine Watteau
1684–1721 Portrait of Marie Antoinette,
by Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun. Marie Élisabeth Louise Vigée
Born 16 April 1755Paris, France
Died 30 March 1842
(aged 86)Paris, France Rococo The Swing
ca. 1767Oil on canvas81 cm × 64.2 cm (31 in × 25 ¼ in)Wallace Collection, London, United Kingdom Francois Boucher
1703-1770 Diana Resting
Paris Venus Consoling Love
Oil on Canvas 18th Century Louis XV 1710-1774
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