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From Film Noir to Neo-Noir

and from andragogy to heutagogy

Eric Peterson

on 16 December 2013

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Transcript of From Film Noir to Neo-Noir

From Film Noir to Neo-Noir
Digital Resources on Film Noir and Neo-Noir
References: Learning Theories
Brown, J. S. (2000). Growing up digital: How the web changes work, education, and the ways people learn.
Change, 32
(2), 11-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00091380009601719 Retrieved from http://www.johnseelybrown.com/Growing_up_digital.pdf

Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning.
Educational Researcher, 18
(1), 32-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0013189X018001032

Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2000). From andragogy to heutagogy. Ultibase. Retrieved from http://www.psy.gla.ac.uk/~steve/pr/Heutagogy.html

Jonassen, D., & Land, S. (Eds.). (2012).
Theoretical foundations of learning environments
(2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Lave, Jean. (1985). The social organization of knowledge and practice: A symposium. Introduction: Situationally specific practice.
Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 16
(3), 171-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aeq.1985.16.3.05x1482z

Mayer, R. E. (2006). Cognitive theory of multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.),
The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning
(2nd ed.), pp. 31-48. New York: University of Cambridge Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511816819.004

Nardi, B. A. (1996). Activity theory and human-computer interaction.
Journal of the Learning Sciences, 7
(2), 257-261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327809jls0702_6

Siemens, G. (2004). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. Retrieved from http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm

Film Noir and Its Discontents
Well, What
The neo-noir genre will be up to you to define and explore, but one of the most prominent signposts may be the mixing of film noir with other genres.

We will be viewing parts or all of these films in this course. (You will be proposing and voting on films we see for the last half of this course!)

Select one of these examples, or a film of your own choosing, to further define and explore the neo-noir. You're encouraged to make this a pair or group project. After watching the film, you'll track down 4-6 responses to the film (in books, articles, or online resources) and present your findings to the class during the appropriate week.

Mildred Pierce
, dir. Michael Curtiz, 1945 - film noir and women's film, melodrama

Pickup on South Street
, dir. Sam Fuller, 1953 - film noir and urban documentary, melodrama

The Manchurian Candidate
, dir. John Frankenheimer, 1962 - film noir and paranoid thriller

, dir. Roman Polanski, 1974 - film noir and historical revision

Taxi Driver
, dir. Martin Scorsese, 1976 - film noir and crime story, psychological study

Blade Runner
, dir. Ridley Scott, 1982 - film noir and sci fi

Lost Highway
, 1997, or
Mulholland Drive
, 2001, dir. David Lynch - film noir and experimental narrative

Instructor's Role in Self-Directed Learning
The instructor's role within heutagogy is to facilitate learning, with learners "led to their own ideas" (Hase & Kenyon, 2000). The instructor provides resources and suggestions, but course topics, materials, and concepts are to increasingly emerge from learners themselves.

An "ill-structured" project has space-creating potential for building capabilities in learners. "Heutagogy takes account of intuition and concepts such as 'double loop learning' [ongoing feedback of learning into the structure and approach of the course] that are not linear and not necessarily planned...It goes beyond problem solving by enabling proactivity" (Hase & Kenyon, 2000).

The instructor provides resources and some of the initial conceptual focus for the course as a kind of pump priming: "the teacher provides resources but the learner designs the actual course he or she might take by negotiating the learning" (Hase & Kenyon, 2000). This learner negotiation includes group and/or individual research as the learner chooses, and the type of learning object the learner/s will create and share.

The class as a group also negotiates collective learning, creating the texture of the learning experience through selecting films according to their own view of the neo-noir genre, discussing the films, and creating projects about them.
A university film course for self-determined learners
& From Andragogy to Heutagogy
Background image from Filmsnoir.net: http://filmsnoir.net/film_noir/cinematic-cities-new-york-1956.html
Image and Video Credits

[Please note: Prezi doesn't allow YouTube links as citations; Prezi immediately turns YouTube links into an embedded video.]

Background image. Filmsnoir.net: http://filmsnoir.net/film_noir/cinematic-cities-new-york-1956.html

Scene from
Pickup on South Street
, dir. Sam Fuller, 1953. YouTube.

Scene from
Blade Runner
, dir. Ridley Scott, 1982. YouTube.

Scene from
Mildred Pierce
, dir. Michael Curtiz, 1945. YouTube.

Scene from
Mulholland Drive
, dir. David Lynch, 2001. YouTube.

American Cinema
series, full program on film noir. YouTube.

The Rules of Film Noir
. YouTube.

Scene from
The Manchurian Candidate
, dir. John Frankenheimer, 1962. YouTube.

Original trailer for
Blood Simple
, dir. & prod. Joel and Ethan Coen, 1984. YouTube.
SFSU ITEC 800 Project 9/10 12/15/13 Eric Peterson
Thelma Ritter in
Pickup on South Street
, dir. Sam Fuller, 1953
In this course we'll share our discoveries about film noir and newer films that exceed or depart from the boundaries of the film noir genre. The scene above is a world away from
Double Indemnity
, with new overtones of naturalist melodrama and exploration of urban poverty.

In this class we will all find films we think are neo-noir, and create projects to explore and share them.
From Andragogy to Heutagogy
Andragogy, or the theory of adult education, focuses on relevance, problem-centered learning, and internal motivation. Heutagogy takes these insights further into self-directed learning and capability development. Heutagogy meshes well with connectivism and the connectivist emphasis on information networks: "the rapid rate of change in society, and the so-called information explosion, suggest that we should now be looking at an educational approach where it is the learner himself [sic] who determines what and how learning should take place" (Hase & Kenyon, 2000).

This course on neo-noir film asks learners to explore their own powers of interpretation, enthusiasm, and expression; to use interpersonal and electronic information networks within and beyond the physical classroom, and to create "learning objects" exploring their encounter with the genre they help to define. Rather than a well-defined genre, the neo-noir is "an ill-structured problem" asking for definition by learners.

Specific learning objectives or areas of capability development include:

learning to have a critical conversation about film
learning how to acquire vocabulary and conceptual tools
responding to the interests and viewpoints of other learners
using print and electronic information networks to gather information and develop searching and synthesizing skills
creating a project expressing and exploring the learner's own viewpoint that can be shared within and beyond the class
"Capable people are more likely to deal effectively with the turbulent environment in which they live by possessing an 'all round' capacity centred on self-efficacy, knowing how to learn, creativity, the ability to use competencies in novel as well as familiar situations and working with others" (Hasen & Kenyon, 2000)
Culminating Project
Learning Reflection
References: Digital Resources on Film Noir and Neo-Noir
Think of the final project for this course as a learning object! This learning object...

— can be a group or individual project. If it's a group project, proportionally more material and coverage is expected.

— will have several dispersed due dates for proposal, drafts, and final version because so much of the course grade depends on it.

— will be presented during the last several class sessions and will be shared in the online course. Sharing on a public website will mean extra credit!

— can be a presentation in PowerPoint or a Prezi like this,

— or can be a multimedia project such as a website or a video with narration;

— can be a critical paper.

— should show time, effort, intellectual and aesthetic attention.

— should explore several films, make your argument about the neo-noir genre, and use several types and formats of resources.
Connectivism and Creating A Learning Object

Connectivism expands learning beyond the classroom and formal education to communities of practice and information networks. "Know-how and know-what is being supplemented with know-where (the understanding of where to find knowledge needed)" (Siemens, 2004).

To the "fuzziness" of constructivist learning, the "ill-structured" learning situation that produces real intellectual activity, Siemens adds digital information seeking and digital network-forming strategies. Connectivity is with vastly multiplied electronic resources and also with other people, personal (and impersonal) connections that depend on or are enhanced by digital media. "We derive our competence from forming connections."

Creating a "learning object" allows the learner to synthesize a wide range of digital resources, enhance multimedia skills, and to extend social and professional connections through sharing of online resources.
"I'm not
the business. I
the business." A neo-noir visual style is evident throughout the scifi film
Blade Runner
, dir. Ridley Scott, 1982 .
Program on film noir from the excellent PBS
American Cinema
series - YouTube
Electronic Resources and Connectivity
The Rules of Film Noir
- BBC YouTube
More melodrama than film noir,
Mildred Pierce
(dir. Michael Curtiz, 1945) uses noir elements to heighten the dramatic tension between mother and daughter.
Lengthy (10 minutes) but gorgeous sequence from
Mulholland Drive
, dir. David Lynch, 2001. Portuguese subtitles in this YouTube video, along with spoken Spanish and English on the soundtrack, contribute to a sense of dislocation that is a crucial theme of neo-noir.
Noir City Xmas - December 18, 2013 at the Castro Theatre! http://www.noircity.com/

Film Noir Foundation
A San Francisco-based film festival and foundation celebrating the film noir.

Film Noir Studies
Focuses on the classic 40s and 50s era of film noir, gathers wide range of useful resources.

The Criterion Collection: Noir and Neonoir
Producers of the finest discs for numerous great international films. Lots of online essays.

AMC Filmsite. Film Noir
Genre overview with particularly good list of post-classic era neo/noir films

Eddie Muller, "Film Noir"
Author of several books on film noir - brief intro on GreenCine.

Lee Horsley, "An Introduction to Neo-Noir"
AMC Filmsite. (2013). Film Noir. Retrieved from http://www.filmsite.org/filmnoir.html

The Criterion Collection: Noir and Neonoir. Retrieved from http://www.criterion.com/explore/17-noir-and-neonoir

Film Noir Foundation. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.noircity.com/foundation.html

Film Noir Studies. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.filmnoirstudies.com/home.asp

Lee Horsley. (2002). An Introduction to Neo-Noir. Retrieved from http://www.crimeculture.com/Contents/NeoNoir.html

Eddie Muller. (n.d.). Film Noir. Retrieved from http://www.greencine.com/static/primers/noir.jsp
Spoiler alert! The big reveal in
The Manchurian Candidate
, dir. John Frankenheimer, 1962.
The Manchurian Candidate
was taken out of distribution after the assassination of President Kennedy the next year. Derived from film noir,
The Manchurian Candidate
gave rise to its own genre, the paranoid thriller.
Blood Simple
, dir. & prod. Joel and Ethan Coen, 1984, revisions a classic film noir plot with distinctively regional flair and independent vigor.
Digital information resources and networking media expand the capacities of other media in several ways: digital media can have a two-way reciprocity more immediate than previous media such as print; offer satisfaction for multiple intelligences and learning styles; and leverage primary input from the fewest and most committed contributors with crucial interventions from many people making smaller efforts (Brown, 2000).

Information literacies that were previously text-focused have evolved to include image and screen literacy. Beyond text and image literacy are the digital navigation and interface skills that "may well be the main form of literacy for the 21st century" (Brown, 2000). Digital interfaces call for the synthesizing judgment of what John Seely Brown terms
, "abilities to find something — an object, tool, document, a piece of code — and use it to build something you deem important" (Brown, 2000).

The rich print literature of film theory and criticism will continue to be part of course materials, but digital materials including websites and video offer not only greater accessibility than we previously experienced with print formats, but more immediate exchanges of knowledge in many areas of expertise and enhanced means of developing interpretive and expressive powers.
This first semester with the instructional technologies program has been an exciting encounter with new educational ideas and new technologies, with many more to come. The assigned projects for our ITEC 800 introductory course were intriguing and challenging because each multimedia project required three levels of work:

knowing or learning something about the subject matter of the lesson
forming the educational lesson in light of the learning theory concerned
and knowing or learning enough about the technology format used to be able to create the project presentation.

This multimedia project method (rather than, say, the writing of theoretical papers) is a much better way of learning how to integrate learning theory with technological practice and instructional design.

Foundational learning theories of behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism engage different dimensions of teaching. Behaviorism with its examination of operant conditioning and positive and negative reinforcements continues to be quite useful in helping us think through how to develop habits in learning and ultimately practice. Cognitivism explores schemas or structures of internal knowledge, and information transfer and memory retention.

Constructivism emerged as the most influential of these foundational learning theories because of its demonstrated success. Student-centered scaffolded instruction and active project-based learning show excellent results with learners in crucial areas of acquiring complex learning practices and self-efficacy (Jonassen & Land, 2012).

Situated learning developed from constructivism and emphasized a closer relationship between everyday learning practices and the classroom, authentic learning with real world immediacy, and collaborative problem-solving (Lave, 1985; Brown, Collins & Duguid, 1989).

Andragogy is a constructivist learning theory focused on adult learning in terms of the need to know or reason for learning, the importance of experience and inner motivation, and the appeal of relevant and problem-solving learning. Heutagogy seeks to carry these insights into true self-determined learning in which the learner or learners determine their learning goals and methods for themselves, facilitated rather than directed by an instructor (Hase & Kenyon, 2000).
Andragogy, a constructivist learning theory focused on adult learning in terms of the need to know or reason for learning, the importance of experience and inner motivation, and the appeal of relevant and problem-solving learning. Heutagogy sought to carry these insights into true self-determined learning in which the learner or learners determine their learning goals and methods for themselves, facilitated rather than directed by an instructor (Hase & Kenyon, 2000).

Theories integrating technology and learning are naturally important for us in instructional technologies. Nardi’s activity theory (1996) focuses on the cognitive, social and material environment of human-computer interaction. Connectivism brings constructivist insights into the digital realm that has radically shifted previous bases of knowledge. “Our ability to learn what we need for tomorrow is more important than what we know today” (Siemens, 2004).

Digital technologies introduce entirely formats of information and activity, new life and employment skills and strategies, new forms of social networks and relationships. Connectivist learning emphasizes knowing how to find and synthesize knowledge within a digital world, with connectivity understood as connections between digital learners and as “the ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts” (Siemens, 2004), to discern useful patterns within an often overwhelming digital environment.

John Seely Brown’s approach to connectivist learning (2000) is particularly compelling in its recognition of the immediate and informal learning practices in technological activities of “born digital” generations. Brown’s “learning ecology” seeks to map out how communities of practice create and share new digital knowledge structures.

Richard Meyer’s cognitive theory of multimedia learning (Mayer, 2009) gives us extremely down-to-earth and useful “best practices” for multimedia information presentation. Mayer discusses coherence, signaling cues, the preferred use of narration rather than text with graphics, cognitive rules of contiguity, the segmenting or “chunking” of manageable amounts of material, and issues of personal and vocal delivery.

No one learning theory is complete, an island to itself. Wise instructors and resource creators are able to draw from a number of relevant learning approaches. We need to synthesize courses and resources from several types of information and delivery, just as our senses do. And just as course materials need to be delivered in several formats for students with varied learning styles, instruction styles should offer several different ways for learners to actively participate.
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