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Factory Working Conditions 1820-1860

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by

Jairo Mendez

on 28 March 2014

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Transcript of Factory Working Conditions 1820-1860

Factory Act
Factory act passed in 1833
Gave children protection:
-Had to be at least 9 to work
-No night shifts
-Had to go to school for at least 2 hours per day
Factory inspectors were set to make sure rules were followed and established a desired of making a controlled government
Act was the first step in protecting children's labor rights during the Industrial Revolution


Factory Working Conditions 1820-1860
What lead to the Factories?
The establishment of the factories began:
Francis Cabot Lowell opened a textile plant which had all the stages to make cloth under one roof. This began what is know as the factory system.
-Factory System-A system that brought manufacturing steps together in one place to increase efficiency
Working Conditions
Francis Cabot Lowell opened a textile plant which had all the stages to make cloth under one roof. This began what is know as the factory system.
Factory System-A system that brought manufacturing steps together in one place to increase efficiency



Attempts to Organize
Sarah G. Bagley formed the “ Lowell Female Labor Reform Organization” and created a petition, but legislature did not review it since all the petitions were those of women.
Excerpt of Elizabeth Bentley
Essential question: How do Injustices lead to reform?
By: Emeline Benitez, Vanessa Garcia, Jairo Galvan, and Jasmine Valdivia
Women Workers
Women were discriminated by being paid less than men
Men did not want women in factories, they only wanted men working that job
Sarah G. Bagley formed the “ Lowell Female Labor Reform Organization” and created a petition, but legislature did not review it since all the petitions were those of women.
Women working in factories commonly lived in boarding houses near the factory
African- American Workers
No more slavery, however there was racial discrimination against African-Americans
However, Some African-Americans became business owners and became successful
Henry Boyd: owned furniture manufacturing company
Samuel Cornish along with John B. Russwurm: wrote first African-American newspaper in U.S called “Freedom’s Journal”
Children Workers
Children were treated horrible, over worked, and underpaid.
Children were around large, heavy, and dangerous equipment. This lead to many injuries.
Boys and girls who worked in factories were subject to beatings and other harsh forms of pain infliction. A common punishment for being late or not working up to quota would be to be "weighed”. Someone would tie a heavy weight to the child's neck and have them walk up and down the factory aisles so the other children could see them and "take example."
Immigration

What time did you begin to work at a factory?
When I was six years old.
What was your business in the mill?
I was a little doffer [worker who changes the
bobbins on the frames in the spinning machines]
What were your usual hours of labor in that mill?
From 6 in the morning ‘till 7 at night.
What time was allowed for your meals?
Forty minutes at noon.
Had you any time to get your breakfast or drinking?
No, we got it as we could.
Do you consider doffing a laborious [hard, tiring] employment?
Yes.
Does [your work] keep you constantly on your feet?
Yes, there are so many frames, and they run so quick.
Your labor is very excessive?
Yes; you have not time for anything.
Suppose you flagged [slowed down] a little, or were too late, what would they do?

Strap [beat] us.
Are they in the habit of strapping those who are last in doffing?
Yes.
Constantly?
Yes.
Girls as well as boys?
Yes.
Have you ever been strapped?
Yes.
Severely?
Yes.
Could you eat your food well in that factory?
No, indeed, I had not much to eat, and the little I had I could not eat it, my appetite was so poor, and being covered with dust; and it was no use to take it home, I could not eat it, and the over looker took it, and gave it to the pigs.


Immigration to America
Immigration: the movement of people into a country
Manufacturers welcomed immigrants because they were willing to work for low pay.
The largest group of immigrants were the Irish from 1840-1860 and the second largest were Germans from 1820-1860 ( however, Germans had money to invest in business while Irish had no capital)
Immigrants still practiced their customs in the U.S, changing a few of the American culture ways
Life in America was advertised achieve a better life
Nativists opposed immigration by being against the immigrants ways and for taking the “real” Americans’ jobs away
Full transcript