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Copy of Copy of COLD WAR Block 1-3ish
Transcript of Copy of Copy of COLD WAR Block 1-3ish
The determination of American leaders to contain communism also led to the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and MANY other conflicts where tens of thousands of American lives were lost during the 1950s, 60s, 70s, and 80s.
Many of the events of the Cold War Era have directly affected and shaped the world we live in today. NATO alliance still works to support the security of many democratic countries
The math and science training important to the space race remains an educational priority
The War on Terror and other geopolitical and foreign policy issues today are a direct result of American policies and actions during the Cold War Even before World War II ended the relationship between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. was becoming strained.
Roosevelt's desire for a peaceful world lead by the United Nations turned into an era of confrontation and competition. Germany had invaded Russia twice in 30 years Soviets wanted Germany weak Wanted a 'buffer zone' of Soviet control between the two nations. Soviets were Communists Believed Communism was superior economic system Encouraged Communism in other nations Capitalist countries viewed as enemy of communism and made Soviet leaders suspicious of capitalist nations Saw depression as cause to WWII Depression was made worse by high tariffs and limited trade Economic growth is the key to world peace = increased world trade Democracy made countries more peaceful and stable Capitalism, free enterprise, private property, limited gov. intervention was the way to go. This is the best route to prosperity and peace February 1945: Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met at the Soviet resort of Yalta to plan the postwar world.
Several major agreements reached at Yalta will help to cause the Cold War. Polish Government fled to Britain in 1939 1944: Soviet military encourages Polish Communists to setup a new government Two governments claimed the right to govern Poland, one Communist and one non-Communist. "This is what we went to war against Germany for, that Poland should be free and sovereign." -Churchill 1945 Stalin: "life or death" that the Polish government be friendly to the Soviets Compromise Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to recognize the Polish government set up by the Soviets Stalin agreed to include members of the Free Polish Government and hold free elections as soon as possible Agreement by Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin: "The right of all people to choose the form of government under which they will live." The Allies promised: "...to create democratic institutions of their own choice." and pledged "the earliest possible establishment through free elections of governments responsive to the will of the people." Ok, we've agreed how to best liberate Europe...now let's talk Germany. Stalin Wanted: Germany needs to pay
reparations Roosevelt Wanted: Sure, but only pay what they can afford
Perhaps with goods and products, not $ Yalta sets high expectations for the United States and Allies Soviets pressure Romania into commuism
Limit only three non-communist Poles into 18 member government
Did not intend to allow free elections in Poland
Roosevelt voices his disapproval with the Soviets in Poland, then soon after died. Strong anti-communist and suspicious of Stalin
Did not want to "appease" Stalin like Europe did Hitler
Wanted to "Stand up to the Russians"
10 day in office he is making demands that the Soviets hold free elections and up hold the agreements at Yalta
Changes the tone in Washington July 1945: Truman and Stalin meet for the first time with the goal of working out a deal on how to deal on Germany. Truman:
Germany Industry Critical
Strong Germany = Strong Europe
Weak Germany = Communism
Firm stand against heavy reparations Stalin:
Germany owed Soviets
Soviets take from their zone
Stalin wanted heavy reparations INDUSTRIAL AGRICULTURAL The Compromise:
Allow industry to revive in western zones
Soviets take reparations from their zone
The Soviets can have some industry from western zones in exchange for food shipments from their zone
U.S. would accept German-Polish border zone Potsdam failures: Soviets refused to up hold the Declaration of Liberated Europe
Failed to remove the Soviet military presence throughout Eastern Europe
This ensured that pro-Soviet communist governments would be installed in Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia
These countries would come to be called "satellite nations" Controlled by proxy and follow policies that the Soviets wanted Winston Churchill coined the phrase to describe what happened. On March 5, 1946, in a speech delivered to Westminster College in Fulton, MO From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of central and Eastern Europe...All these lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere...All are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence, but to a very high and increasing measure of control from Moscow."
-Winston Churchill (former PM of England) The Korean War claimed the lives of over 30,000 Americans. Total casualties eclipsed 4 million. 1949 – USSR Explodes A-Bomb On August 29, the Soviet Union successfully set off an atomic explosion. (Three years earlier than the U.S. had thought possible.)
Now the arms race between the U.S. and the Soviet Union had begun. The possibility of nuclear war caused a great deal of concern. The U.S. government went about educating the public about taking precautions, including building bomb shelters.
Truman then ordered the development of the H-bomb. The U.S. had its first successful H-bomb test in 1952, the Soviets in 1953 1950 -- Korean War On June 25, North Korean communist forces (with Soviet-made tanks) crossed the 38th parallel and invaded South Korea.
U.N. Security Council condemned the invasion and established a 15-nation fighting force (no vote by Soviet Union).
The United States provided most of the $, the troops and the leadership under General Douglas MacArthur.
Chinese troops entered the conflict by year's end when UN forces approached their border. War in Korea 1950-1953 The Korean War continues… MacArthur bravely led a landing at Inchon (behind enemy lines) and began to march north.
This movement drew thousands of Chinese communists to join the fight.
MacArthur pressed Truman to commit more resources (nuclear weapons) to ensure victory but Truman refused by arguing“that it was the wrong war, the wrong place, the wrong time and the wrong enemy.”
MacArthur disagreed with the President and publicly criticized him and took his argument to Congress. President. Truman fired him.
Peace talks dragged on for two years until an armistice was negotiated by President Eisenhower in 1953. Border basically where it had been at the start of the war (38th Parallel) Aftermath of Korean War Demilitarized zone created to separate the 2 countries that still exists today
North Korea focused on heavy industry and builds military (huge economic troubles). They also develop nuclear weapons.
South Korea prospers with help from U.S. and by 1980s had one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Major differences between U.S. and U.S.S.R were disagreements over security and economics.
(Basic clash of interests) AGENDA: 1. Chinese Metaphors
2. Introduction to the Cold War Unit
3. Key Terms Activity
4. Timeline/Map Activity Essential Question: Why does tension exist between the United States and Soviet Union at the end of WWII? AGENDA:
1. Containment: What does it mean?
2. Berlin: The front line of the Cold War
3. HW Quiz
4. Roots of the Cold War Containment: Stopping the spread of communism, keeping it within the boarders of the Soviet Union... BERLIN: The front line of a Cold War ROOTS OF THE COLD WAR: The Cold War starts because the United States and Soviet Union have different world views...
Communism vs. Democracy
Freedom vs. Security TENSION increases over time because of how these competing world views play out. QUIZ:
You may use your 33.1 HW