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Transcript of Jean Piaget
0-2 years * Begins to make use of imitation,memory, and thought.
* Begins to recognize that objects do not cease to exist when they are hidden
*moves from relex actions to goal-directed activity. Nature of Intelligence: operative and figurative intelligence
He argued that reality involves two conditions, transformation and states.
Transformation refers to all manners of changes that a thing or person can undergo.
States refers to the conditions or the appearances that things or persons can be found between transformations. Operative Intelligence
Is an active intelligence
overt or covert
in order to follow
anticipate Figurative intelligence
Is more or less static aspect of intelligence
language Jean was the oldest child of Arthur Piaget, and of Rebecca Jackson .From age 11, while he was a pupil at Neuchâtel Latin high school, he wrote a short paper on an albino sparrow. This short paper was the beginning a brilliant scientific career made of over sixty books and several hundred articles.
While attending the University of Zürich he developed an interest for psychoanalysis, he left Switzerland for France. He spent one year working at the Ecole de la rue de la Grange-aux-Belles a boys' institution created by Alfred Binet and then directed by De Simon who had developed with Binet a test for the measurement of intelligence. There, he standardized Burt's test of intelligence and did his first experimental studies of the growing mind. Assimilation and Accommodation Two Processes
the process of using a scheme to make sense of an event or experience. Accommodation-
changing a scheme as
a result of some new information. Assimilation- Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development suggests that children move through four different stages of mental development. His theory focuses not only on understanding how children acquire knowledge, but also on understanding the nature of intelligence. Preoperational
2-7 Years * Gradually develops use of language and ability to think in symbolic form.
*Able to think operations through logically in one direction
*Has difficulties seeing another person's point of view. Concrete Operational
7-11 Years * Able to solve concrete (hands-on) problems in logical fashion.
*Understands laws of conversation and is able to classify and seriate
*Understands reversibility. Formal Operational
11-15 Years * Able to solve abstract problems in logical fashion.
* Becomes more scientific in thinking.
*Develops concerns about social issues,identity. The use of reflexes
(childrens are vicitms of the environment) Birth -1 month Description: Infants are born with inherited reflexes, and it is through the reflexes that the infant begins to make meaning and building understanding.Relflexes are highly stereotyped automatic behaviors that occur in response to specific stimuli. Reflexes include sucking and grasping, as well as eye movements, vocalization, and orientation to sound. examples: grasping finger,sucking any object that comes in contact with the mouth. Substage 2 Description: Circular reactions are repetitive behaviors. Primary circular reactions are behaviors that occur unexpectedly from reflexes. A reflex will engage the child is sime form of behavior. If the child finds that behavior pleasurable, the child will repeat the behavior. primary circular reactions(children show first signs of intentionality) 1 month-4 months example: sucking a thumb. The child does not intentionally coordinate putting his thumb in his mouth and sucking. By chance, when a child's hand comes in contact with the mouth sucking will occur. Getting a pleasurable sensation from this behavior,the child will attempt to recreate the behavior. Substage 3 secondary circular reactions
(children interact with the environment) 4 months-8months Description:Secondary reactions, unlike primary circular reactions, are not based on reflexes; therefore,secondary circular reactions are not contained within the body. However,similar to primary curcular reactions,secondary circular reactions occur from an unintentional occurence,but the occurrence involves the child interacting with the external environment. example: A child is moving about in a playpen and happens to hit the mobile overhead. The mobile spins and catches the babies attention. Once the mobile stops spinning, if the child enjoyed the sxperience,the child will move his arms and legs again to try and hit to mobile. The child wants to repeat the behavior. Substage 4 Coordination of Secondary Circular reactions
(Child uses one to get another) 8-12 months Description: Before this stage,everything occurred by chance. Now, the child is starting to understand that one curcular reaction can be used to get another circular reaction. Bahaviors that the child displays are now for a reason. At this stage,the child begins to gain a sense of cause and effect. Also,major event occurs during this stage:ogjet permanence. Before now,children do not understand that an object out-of-sight continues to exist. Children acquiring a knowledge base of object permanence love to play peek-a-boo. Example: A child wants the rattle but a blanket is in the way.The child will move the blanket to get a rattle. Substage 5 Description: At this stage the action occurs deliberately.The child displays a behavior purposely and continues the action because it is pleasurable. What seperates this stage from the previous is that the action is repeated with some variation. Tertiary Circular reactions
(The little Scientist) 12-18 months Example: A child beats on a pot with a wooden spoon. Then, the child beats on the floor with the wooden spoon. Next, the child beats on the refrigerator with a wooden spoon. Substage 6 Coordination of tertiary circular reactions
(Mental representation begins) 18-24 months Description: It is in this last stage that children internalize behaviors and began to build mental symbols! This stage is when children are able to participate in pretend play. Example: A child is pretending to cook and needs to "mix the ingredients" in a bowl. However, the child does not have a spoon. The child will either pretend to use a spoon, or the child will use an object, similar to a spoon,in its place. Substage 1 Cognitive schemes/tasks that children at the preoperational stage cannot perform, according to Piaget's theory The 3-mountain task
A three-dimensional mountain is placed in front of a child.A house is set on one of the mountains. Next, the conductor sets"Dolly" at a certain angle,usually opposite the child and asks the child what view Dolly sees. CHild will respond with the view he/she sees. Conservation tasks
The recognition that properties of an object or substance do not change when its appearance is altered insome superficial way. Seriation
Understanding less than and more than. Children in the preoperational stage do not understand;therefore,they cannot arrange objects by sequence. Class inclusion
Children in the preoperational stage cannot think of an object simultaneously belonging to both a subclass and superordinate class. Transitive Inference
Is using logic to find the missing piece.For example"a" is greater then "b" and "b" is greater than"c". Children in the preoperational stage don't understand that "a" is also greater then "c". The preoperational stage is also characterized by the deficiencies in logical thinking children at this stage display Egocentrism Children in the preoperational stage have trouble viewing the world from a perspective different from their own. The 3-mountain task tests the child's egocentrism Centration
This is a tendency to focus on a single aspect of a problem rather than looking at the whole picture. Intuitive
Children at the preoperational stage make choices based on salient features,not logic. Preceptually-oriented
Children at the preoperational stage have the tendency to focus on the perceptual aspect of a task and not the logical aspect. Animism
Giving life-like characteristics to inanimate objects. Transductive Reasoning
If 2 events occur together,child at the preoperational stage assumes one caused the other When two glasses are sitting on the table. The glasses are equal in size and shape.Both glasses are filled with the same amount of water Response: Preoperational stage: student notices the appearance and can determine that both glasses have the same amount of water because they look the same. Concrete-operational stage: student also notices that the glasses hold the same amount of water Setting: Expirement: One of the glasses of water is poured into a taller , but skinny glass making the water level rise in the tall skinny glass to be higher. Response: Preoperational Stage: Student sees that the tall glass is taller and concludes that the tallerglass now has more water in it. Concrete-Operational Stage: Student can reason out the situation. Even though the taller glass shows a higher water level, no water was added or deleted; therefore,the amount of water in both glasses are the same. Setting: A three-dimensional mountain is placed in front of a child. A house is set on one of the mountains. The conductor sets"Dolly" at a certain angle, usually opposite the child,and asks the child what view "Dolly" sees. Response: Preoperational stage: student will respond with the view he/she sees. Concrete-Operational Stage: Student understands that the doll is not standing in the sameplace; therefore,the doll sees something different. Where as the concrete operations child follows the content of an argument,the formal operations child can follow its form. For instance,contrast the content versus the form in the appreciation and interpetation of a parable,metaphor or satire(examples Animal Farm Gullivers Travels) "Form" in Formal Operations Real Versus Possible As the adolescent develops formal operations, his or her construction of reality becomes more precise and an awareness of gaps in understanding emerges. These gaps are filled with tentative hypotheses about what might be true.These hypotheses,once proposed,are then put into shape to test their validity.Based on the feedback from an observation or expirement,some hypotheses are confirmed,others are revised adn put into shape for further testing, and others are rejected. Piaget believed that children in this stage were not capable of understanding certain cognitive schemes labeled operations. Concrete-operational stage is when students are able to successfully complete the tasks that they were unable to complete in the preoperational stage.Students in the concrete-operational stage use logic to complete tasks; whereas, students in the preoperational stage base their thoughts and ideas on the appearance of objects. Systematic Problem Solving Concrete operations children use trial and error problem solving. Give them a problem with multiple combinations(example a chemistry lab expirement) and they will rest one combination after the other looking for the answer. With formal operations,the adolescent thinks through problems mentally and abstractly. He/She will predict a possible course of action, test it in some way , and then use logic to reason through what the likely ,outcome will be due to that course of action.The thinking is systematic and it is supported once data is collected,by inference,deduction and reflection. Systematic means the formal operations adolescent will make a prediction of what is likely to occur, test that prediction in some way,notice what actually happens(what the data, not hypothesis,says) and then attempt to isolate the cause behind what actually occurs. The approach is a bit like Sherlock Holmes working to isolate alllpossible causes and test each one in a systematic fashion, starting with the most likely, the proceding on to the given evidence obtained and continuing systematically. Hypothetical-Dedctuive logic Using a general law to make a situtaion-specific prediction.For example,all reinforcers increase voluntary behavior( a general law). Then,what effect will a teacher's praise have on a child's hours of reading behavior? One starts with a general law, makes a situationally-specific prediction based on that general law, and then designs an expirement to test that prediction in the specific situation(to see if the general law applies to the specific situation). Usefulness Anchored Instruction- developed to help children to learn through thinking about situations critically. symbol pads-manipulation of symbols and language word processors,drawing programs and index cards Educators use this theory to shape their curriculm activities in order to produce a productive environment where children learn through thinking about situations critically. Cognitive development is the construction of thought processes, including remembering, problem solving, and decision-making, from childhood through adolescence to adulthood.
Piaget's Theory was the start for many other cognitive theories to follow and set the presedence for many teaching programs. We feel that Piaget's Theory is a good starting point when it comes to reviewing cognitive abilities. There are many ways to test this Piagets is quit thorough and efficient.