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Transcript of Hip-Hop
Origins of Hip-Hop
Hip-Hop culture evolved during the 1970's when block parties became popular in New York, particularly in the Bronx and combined African-America as well as Puerto Rican influences.
Block parties incorporated DJs playing popular genres of music, especially soul and funk.
Hip-Hop was also a liberation movement sparked by ostracised and oppressed inner-city youths who used the music used as an outlet
Hip-Hop is a product of African migration into the United States and combines music, dance, graffiti, oration and fashion
Hip-Hop music was both influenced by disco and a backlash against it
1. Price III, Emmett G 2006, Hip Hop Culture, ABC-CLIO, California
2. Starr L & Waterman C 2010, American Popular Music: From Minstrelsy to MP3, Oxford University Press, New York
3. Greg’s BJJ Blog, http://bjjgreg.com/bjj-vs-hip-hop/, Greg, 22 April 2013, viewed 1 September 2013
4. Wikipedia 2013, Hip Hop Music, viewed 1 September 2013 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hip_hop_music >
5. Love M 2012, South By South Bronx Festival Celebrated Rap’s Cultural Birthplace This Weekend, <http://malikalove.com/2012/12/15/south-by-south-bronx-festival-celebrated-raps-cultural-birthplace-this-weekend/> (web image)
6. Neal Tony 2013, <http://coredjradio.ning.com/profiles/blogs/afrika-bambaataa-refutes-stabbing-gay-rumors-turns-56-today> (web image)
7. Taylor-Parker P 2011, <http://blog.thrillcall.com/2011/11/28/common-lupe-fiasco-join-grandmaster-flash-for-grammy-performance/>(web image)
8. v@renick, <http://www.gdefon.com/music/435969-night-club_dj_black.html>(web image)
9. Ada T 2012, Hip-Hop Timeline: 1925-Present, <http://rap.about.com/od/hiphop101/a/hiphoptimeline.htm>, viewed 1 September 2013
10. Afrika Bambaataa & Soul Sonic Force - Planet Rock 2009, You Tube, viewed 1 September 2013, <
11. Grandmaster Flash & The Furious Five – The Message 2011, You Tube, viewed 1 September 2013, <
12. Universal Zulu Nation 2013, viewed 1 September 2013, <http://www.zulunation.com/home.html>
13. List of Best Selling Hip Hop albums in the United States 2012, viewed 1 September 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_best-selling_hip_hop_albums_in_the_United_States>
14. Best Hip Hop Artists of the 2000s 2013, viewed 3 September 2013,<http://www.thetoptens.com/best-hip-hop-artists-2000s/>
15. 4 Elements of Hip Hop 2006, You Tube, viewed 3 September 2013, <www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Qyfvc0UHtU>
16. Public Enemy 2013, <http://www.last.fm/music/Public+Enemy> (web image)
17. Five Tracks: Noah D 2013, <http://doandroidsdance.com/features/five-tracks-noah-d/> (web image)
19. Raising Hell by Run DMC - http://www.7digital.com/artist/run-dmc/release/raising-hell
20. Music Minute! 2013, <http://thelavalizard.com/2012/01/music-minute-202/> (web image)
21. Tommy Boy 2013, <http://www.independentmusicawards.com/> (web image)
22. Finlayson J 2012, 3 Rap Labels that Understand Brand Positioning 2012, <theadbuzz.com> (web image)
Early pioneers of Hip-Hop
Hip-Hop history timeline
Hip-Hop culture is generally defined by the combination of four key elements:
Masters of Ceremonies (MC)/Rappers
Disc Jockey (DJ)
Early pioneer of Hip-Hop
In 1967, he arrived in the Bronx from Jamaica and was a unique DJ who adapted disco DJ technique of 'mixing' between two turntables to create smooth transitions between records
He inspired the style of DJing - bringing forth break beats for dancers to present their fancy footwork and clean palettes for DJs or MCs to show their moves
Herc ignited the spark that created rap music
Influenced by DJ Kool Herc
1973 - began throwing block parties
1974 - the former gang warlord built the Universal Zulu Nation (http://www.zulunation.com) and brought together DJs, break dancers (b-boys/b-girls), graffiti artists, MCs and rap enthusiasts
Used news sounds of Hip-Hop to inspire peace and unity
Credited for introducing Hip-Hop to numerous nations around the world
1982 - Bambaataa and his Soul Sonic Force gave birth to electro-funk with single 'Planet Rock' - one of the most sampled records in the history of Hip-Hop
Influenced by DJ Kool Herc
creator of cue system (pre-hear records before playing over loudspeaker)
developed cutting, backspinning and phasing
named 'Flash' for his speed and precision in mixing breaks seamlessly
1982 - Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five released the Hip-Hop classic 'The Message'
Stylistic elements of Hip-Hop music
Funk, disco, dub, dancehall, rhythm and blues, reggae, toasting, performance poetry, spoken words, talking blues
Turntable, synthesiser, digital audio workstations, rapping, drum machine, sampler, drums, guitar, bass, piano, beatboxing, vocals
1925 - Earl Tucker a performer at the Cotton Club uses slides and floats in his dance style which inspired ''breakdancing'
1950 - The Soundclash contest between Coxsone Dodd's 'downbeat' and Duke Reid's 'Trojan' gives birth to DJ Battling
1962 - James Brown's drummer Clayton Fillyau influences a sound called the 'break beat' which later inspires break dancing moves
1970 - Godfather of Hip Hop Culture, father of electro-funk, Afrika Bambaataa begins DJing
1973 - Father of Hip Hop, DJ Kool Herc begins to DJ block parties on west side of the Bronx. During these jams, he lengthens the instrumental breakdown segments of records and invents break beats.
1974 – DJs begin to speak over the records they are spinning (similar to Carribean style of “toasting”). Lines such as “and ya don’t stop” are used, marking the beginning of MCing.
1975 - DJ Grand Wizard Theodore invents the 'scratch' (distinctive sounds created by moving a vinyl record back and forth on a turntable)
1977 - Grandmaster Flash develops the techniques: cutting, back-spinning and phasing on turntables.
- Kraftwerk's 'Trans-Europe Express' is released and inspires electro-funk artists such as Bambaataa.
- First music convention to include rap music is held - 'Jack the Rapper Music Convention'
1978 - music industry begins to use the term 'rap music'
- Disco Fever opens up in the Bronx and is first club to only play rap music
1979 - Sugar Hill Records founded by Sylvia Robinson and is first record label dedicated to rap music. The first release, Sugar Hill Gang's 'Rapper's Delight' becomes first rap hit record (sold over 2 million copies and first rap single to hit Top 40)
- Kurtis Blow records single 'Christmas Rapping' and becomes first rapper to sign a major record deal with Mercury Records
1920's - 1970's
1980 – Kurtis Blow has the first rap single to be certified gold ('The Breaks') and is first rapper to appear on national TV (Soul Train)
- Blondie lead singer, Deborah Harry credited as first white rapper
1981 - MTV begins broadcasting as 24 music video channel
- Tommy Boy Records founded
- First Hip-Hop radio show, Zulu Beats started in New York
- First white reap group, The Beastie Boys, is formed
- Beat boxing is invented by Doug E. Fresh
- Funky 4 Plus One More perform on NBC’s Saturday Night Live, becoming the first rap group to appear on national television
1982 - First international Hip-Hop tour, 'The Roxy Tour', takes place
- Public Enemy are formed and signed to Def Jam Records
1983 - Run DMC formed
- Afrika Bambaataa releases first recorded use of digital sampling 'Looking for the perfect beat' using the Emulator synthesiser. Success of the album turns Tommy Boy Records into a major Hip-Hop/dance label.
- Def Jam Records formed
1985 - Run-DMC's 'King of Rock' is first rap album to go platinum
1986 - Run-DMC has first multi-platinum album (Raising Hell), first rap album in US Top 10 and first rap artists to appear on cover of Rolling Stone
- Sampling becomes popular in rap music. Recording over other artists music becomes easier and more common because of advances in digital technology.
1987 - 'Licensed to Ill' by Beastie Boys becomes first rap album to go to number 1 on pop chart
- Salt-n-Pepa's 'Push It' becomes one of first rap songs nominated for a Grammy Award (they later become first female rap group to go platinum)
- Soul Train Music Awards introduces rap category to awards
- Grammy Awards, American Music Awards and MTV Awards create a category for the Hip-Hop genre
- NWA release 'F**** Tha Police' and it appears on the album Straight Outta Compton
1990 – MC Hammer’s song 'U Can’t Touch This' and Vanilla Ice’s 'Ice Ice Baby' become worldwide hits
1991 – NWA’s 'Efil4zaggin' becomes first hard-core rap album to hit #1
- LL Cool J is the first rapper to perform on MTV’s Unplugged.
- Naughty by Nature releases O.P.P which appears on album Naughty by Nature
1992 – Dre Dre starts Death Row Records with Suge Knight
- Puff Daddy founds Bad Boy Entertainment
- Arrested Development releases 'Tennessee' and 'People Everyday'
- James Thompson founds the Hip Hop Hall of Fame Awards
1993 - Arrested Development wins a Grammy Award (first rap artists to do so)
- Naughty by Nature release ‘Hip Hop Hooray’
- Snoop Dogg release ‘What’s my name’ and Gin & Juice
1994 – Da Brat first female rap artist to go platinum with her debut 'Fundafied'
1995 – Queen Latifah wins a Grammy Award for best rap solo performance for “Unity”
- Tupac signs to Death Row Records
1996 – Jay-Z and Notorious B.I.G release “Brooklyn’s Finest”
- Tupac is murdered in Las Vegas
1997 – Notorious B.I.G releases song “Hypnotized” and is murdered in LA
1999 – Lauryn Hill (formerly of the Fugees) wins 5 Grammy Awards setting a new record for most awards won by a female artist
- Jay Z wins a Grammy for best album for 'Vol. 2'
Afrika Bambaataa & Soul Sonic Force - Planet Rock (1982)
Grandmaster Flash & The Furious Five – The Message (1982)
Hip-Hop's role within society
Gangsta rap popularity rose mainly through the efforts and exploits of NWA (Niggaz With Attitude) in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
NWA popularised the dope dealing, hustling and gang-banging reality of some inner-city youth. Their tales offered a vivid fantasy for other inner-city and suburban youth and an opportunity for these outsiders to become vicarious onlookers in these mysteriously gruesome yet appealing affairs.
For some, gangsta rap is considered to be the epitome of Hip-Hop because it offers uncensored social commentary, a charged political critique and an economic potential that early Hip-Hop only dreamed about.
Gangsta rap, although with its numerous negative overtones, has many positive attributes including:
- presents real-life crisis of inner-city living from the inside out
- offers an intimate portrayal of the failure of many social service and governmental aid programs
- brings to the forefront, the persistent problems of police brutality, racial profiling and a broken legal system
Popular Hip-Hop artists, albums and labels
Popular Hip-Hop artists of the 80s
Popular Hip-Hop artists of the 90s
Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five
Erik B & Rakin
LL Cool J
Boogie Down Productions
The Beastie Boys
Best Selling Hip-Hop albums (US)
Raising Hell - Run-D.M.C (1986)
Licensed to Ill - Beastie Boys (1986)
Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em - MC Hammer (1990)
The Chronic - Dr Dre (1992)
Doggystyle - Snoop Dogg (1993)
Regulate... G Funk Era - Warren G (1994)
All Eyez on Me - 2Pac (1996)
Life After Death - The Notorious B.I.G (1997)
Big Willie Style - Will Smith (1997)
No Way Out - Puff Daddy and the Family (1997)
The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill - Lauryn Hill (1998)
The Marshall Mathers LP - Eminem (2000)
Major Hip-Hop recording labels (US)
Sugar Hill Records (Sugar Hill Gang, Grandmaster Flash)
Tommy Boy Records (Afrika Bambaataa, De La Soul, Queen Latifah)
Def Jam Records (LL Cool J, Beastie Boys, Public Enemy)
Death Row (Snoop Dogg, Tupac)
Bad Boy (Notorious B.I.G, Craig Mack)
Interscope (Tupac, Mos Def)
Ruthless (Eazy E, Bone Thugs-n-Harmony)
Mercury Records (Kurtis Blow)
Impact of technology on music and Hip-Hop
Backspin - turning a record backwards while the other plays over loud speakers
Scratching - produces a scratchy, percussive sound effect which can be punched into the dance groove
Phrasing - smooth transitioning between two tracks without breaking the musical structure
New recording technologies (synthesisers, samplers, sequencers and beat boxes) saw many DJs leave their records in exchange for producing
New forms of entertainment including home video, cable tv, video games as well as the decline of disco (which had driven the rapid expansion of the recording business in the late 70s), an increase in illegal copying (pirating) of commercial recordings by consumers with cassette tape decks
Sales of pre-recorded cassettes (boosted by Sony Walkman tape players and larger portable tape players (boomboxes)) surpassed vinyl discs for first time in history
Digital downloading allowed musicians a form of distribution previously reserved for mainstream products (although without the connection to major record labels)
Rapid expansion of the personal computer (PC) allowed musicians to set up home studios, stimulating growth of genres like Hip-Hop (which relies heavily on digital samples, loops and grooves)
Digital DJ technology allowed DJs to play digital music files stored on laptops or other sources through analog turntables or CD players
Music software such as Final Scratch Pro and Serato Scratch provided other ways to expand the realm of digital DJ technology
DJs began using digital vinyl turntable CD players for scratching, mixing etc.
Technological advances made DJing more accessible to those without an extensive record collection and without huge areas for storage
The four elements of Hip-Hop culture