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Transcript of The Philosophers
Lived from 384 BCE – 322 BCE
“Good public speaker” / “arrogant”
Spent most of his time in the public eye, often teaching in Athens
Had to leave Athens twice because of political disputes
Driven by his passion for knowledge
He was taught by Plato and taught Alexander the Great Major Works - Only 1/5 of his work survived, yet that’s still 50 volumes of work…so yeah, he wrote A LOT
- Writing style: very rough, as if they were just his unpolished, unedited thoughts
- He wrote about everything: zoology, biology, chemistry, physics, math, time and space, the theory of knowledge, politics, law, language, arts…he did it all!
- His most famous works include "Metaphysics" and "The Nichomachean Ethics" Metaphysics “In the philosophical investigation of reality…it is plain that they too say that there are certain principles and causes…we shall find some further kind of cause or else we shall be more firmly convinced of those we have just mentioned.” Cause, effect, and inquiry
Early contributions to SCIENCE The Nichomachean Ethics “We are conducting the enquiry not in order to know what goodness is but in order to become good men.” Fact vs opinion
Practical philosophy Theology Aristotle portrayed himself as a polytheist like most Greeks, but he had a lot of theories that can be interpreted many different ways Here are some… Qua: Existing, being. Change: Being is matter and form.
Whatever comes into being is always around, but it just changes, grows, withers, so on and so forth
- Therefore, people may no longer be in the form of people, but matter remains…so everything always exists! In Physics, he speaks of a force implementing all changes
Figuring something out based on previous knowledge…deduction!
(All humans are mortal = all Greeks are human = all Greeks are moral.) Kinda flawed, though.
No such thing as the “true” way of viewing the world. SO MANY DIFFERENT IDEAS Unmoved Mover: Syllogism: Paradigms: Legacy • His thinking was revolutionary for his time
• He is also known for creating large schools - Lyceum
• Early contributions to science, philosophy, and more.
• He inspired and shaped many future ideas Plato Biography - Plato was a nickname, given to him by his wrestling coach
- Means “broad”.
- His real name was probably Aristocles, after his Grandfather. - Born into an aristocratic family in Athens in 427 B.C.
- His father was Ariston, and his mother was Perictione.
- Siblings: brothers Adeimantus and Glaucon, and a sister Potone.
As well as a step brother Demus and a half brother Antiphon.
- As a boy, Plato must have been instructed in grammar, music, and gymnastics by the most distinguished teachers of his time.
- Plato had also attended courses of philosophy, his greatest teacher being Socrates.
- Founded one of the earliest known organized schools
- Became caught up in the politics of the city of Syracuse.
- Sold into slavery; almost faced death
- A few accounts of Plato’s death: died at a wedding feast, or died in his sleep. - - Happened in 327 B.C. Education Later life Death Name Plato's dialogues were arranged in groups of four called "tetralogies".
●1. Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phædo
●2. Cratylus, Theætetus, Sophist, Statesman
●3.Parmenides, Philebus, Symposium, Phædrus
●4. Alcibiades, 2nd Alcibiades, Hipparchus, Rival Lovers
●5. Theages, Charmides, Laches, Lysis
6. Euthydemus, Protagoras, Gorgias, Meno
7. Hippias major, Hippias minor, Ion, Menexenus
8. Clitophon, Republic, Timæus, Critias
9. Minos, Laws, Epinomis, Letters Major Works - From Plato’s book, Republic. - The world outside the cave represents the world of forms; shadows on the wall represent objects in the physical world.
- The prisoner who escapes represents philosophical enlightenment
- Most people are like the prisoners in the cave
- Philosophers are like the man who escapes the cave and sees the real world. The Theory of Forms The Allegory of The Cave - Belief that reality consists of two realms: the physical world, world of forms
- Forms are like perfect versions of things the “physical world” that exist in another dimension.
- i.e. a chair in your house is an inferior copy of a perfect chair that exists somewhere in another dimension.
His legacy is shown today in what is known as Platonism, which is the belief in the same things Plato believed in. Four characteristics of this are:
1. The function of philosophy is to arrive at some single systematic synthesis of all that is known.
2. The theory of the forms signifies that generalizations have explanatory value.
3. Reality forms a single coherent system. Reality is not divided up into isolated departments.
4. The World of Thought and the World of Fact illustrates some value. Legacy The Philosophers: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle Aristotle Plato Socrates Comparisons 384 BC – 322 BC
-Scientific: saw things more for what they are
-Soul: thought that the soul only can exist within the body
-Happiness: is being the best at something
-Logic: exist within earth Aristotle Plato Socrates 469 BC - 399 BC
-Believed in the importance of
-Soul: is who you really are. A good soul means one is a good person and nothing can hurt them
-Happiness: use philosophy to discover the meaning of happiness 427 BC - 347 BC
-Idealistic: what we see is only a reflection of a perfect dimension
-Soul: Only exists outside the body
-Logic: exists in forms and ideas. Learn is actually remembering -Political views: Only the philosophers/wise should be allowed to govern
-Trials: because his teaching went against God he was accused of Denying the Gods, and corrupting the youth and sentenced to death
-Writing style: never wrote anything down -Political views: hated democracy the most
-Trials: Was never put on trial :)
-Writing style: wrote in Socratic dialogue -Political views: propose to create a class of educated and cultured people
-Trials: Charged with impiety and would have gone to trial, but fled Athens.
-Writing style: wrote a lot Aristotle Socrates Plato Thanks for listening!
Now for the part you've all been waiting for :) By: Cambria Jank Socrates! The Life and Times of Socrates Born in Athens, 469 B.C.
Sophroniscus, a sculpture
Phaenarete, a Midwife
Trained as a sclupture, gave it up
Served in the Peloponnesian wars, Petidaea, Delium, and Amphipolis
Became a stonemason
Studied under Archelaus
Devoted himself to the investigation of the concept of morality.
Inherited money from his Father, was able to fully indulge himself in his studies The Trial Of Socrates Socrates made enemies!
Accused of Denying the Gods, and corrupting the minds of the youth
Charges demanded his death
Trial was ten hours long
Located in the Peoples Court, located in the agora (market place) of Athens
Jury: 500 males over the age of thirty, farmers
Plato recorded the events in his book, The Apology.
Socrates asked the jury to “punish” him with free meals, knowing it would anger them
The only answer to this was that he was ready to die!
Spent final hours in the Athenian Jail, with friends and family
Hemlock gradually paralyzed his central nervous system
He died at age 71 in 399 B.C. Socrates used philosophy to help discover how one should live a happy and fulfilled life
He had three major teachings:
1. Life was not worth living unless you know who you are, what you believe, and what you want to become.
2. you must care for your soul. Your soul is who you really are. Intelligence is based on the condition of your soul.
3. a truly good person is incapable of being harmed by others (spiritual, not physical) If your core, or soul is good, then physical things will not change Socrates' Teachings The Theory of the Soul - a life without a pure, good soul is not worth living!
The Socratic Method - Self understanding is key to living a happy life
Ethics - if a person knew the good choices, then they would choose the good choices
Epistemology - he raised basic questions about common topics to get the people thinking
Plato - one of Socrates' students, a famous Philosopher who is also in this Prezi!
Socrates' Legacy (Don't get to excited now!) Major Works of Socrates! Socrates had no major works! He never wrote anything down as his own
His student Plato wrote down his teachings, and used Socrates as a character in some of his major works!
Socrates taught many, but never excepted money from his pupils, or opened a legitimate school