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Music Cognition (2016)
Transcript of Music Cognition (2016)
Echoic Memory is the initial stage of sensing audio, where feature extraction takes place.
Meter provides temporal structure to
Tonality is the arrangement of pitches so that one pitch predominates and is the strongest and main element in a piece of music.
A musical key consists of a group of coherent pitches that relate to a tonic note, after which the key is named.
Cuing is a way of training ourselves to pull information out of long-term memory faster by making associations between a given cue and a memory.
Syntax is the way in which sounds belonging to primary parameters are combined to create recognizable patterns.
Chunking lightens the load of short term memory by reducing the number of elements we must remember. Chunking can increase the number of elements held in STM from about 5 to about 25.
Working memory contains all of short term memory, plus our focus of conscious awareness, and long term memories that are semi-activated (primed) which are moving into and out of consciousness.
Learned grouping affects how we may separate elements into chunks. For example, exposure to Western music may cause us to chunk songs into verses and choruses, because this type of grouping is top-down or learned.
If a particular sensation happens continuously, entering into our short-term memory but also already perceived in our short-term memory, we habituate to it and our attention is then drawn elsewhere.
When cuing occurs and one aspect of a chunk is brought to mind, the other aspects of the memory may be accessed, as well.
Echoic memory is what allows us to begin the process of primitive grouping. When an event is perceived, the memory of it decays immediately. If this same event persists and then suddenly changes, the brain will perceive it as a different group. The remaining decay of echoic memory allows us to detect that there has been a change.
a priming stimulus semi-activates a number of long-term memories and, if the association is strong enough, brings a long-term memory to conscious awareness. This memory is an implicit memory because no conscious effort was used in recalling it.
Meter is a primary parameter because it is proportionally organized in a way that its categories are readily recognizable.
The fixed intervals and categories of Primary Parameters allow us to easily identify patterns within music. This identification of patterns allow to recognize Sectional Boundaries between parts of a song.
Primary Parameters are the fixed categories that make up the broader concept of music. For example the intervals in the western tuning system where the tonality of one note is a fixed interval away from the notes around it.
Cuing can lead to interference if we have similar cues for the same chunk of memory.
Recognition using cuing when we see a cue and automatically remember something it is associated with. We might consciously use cues when trying to recall something as well, such as when we study with flash cards.
Both of these mental happenings are ways that information is brought out of our LTM store house into the present moment so we may be consciously aware of it and use the events or knowledge from the past in the present moment.
Tonality is a type of implicit memory that is learned by exposure to music with a tonal center, causing the mind to hear things as tonal or atonal.
A musical event which is perceived by a listener will persist within their echoic memory for less than a second.
Limbic contract is the contrast between two of the reactions of ITPRA theory: the reaction response and appraisal response.
Nuances are the slight changes that take place within a specific conceptual category.
Primary parameters make up the identity of the piece while secondary parameters contribute more of the nuance.
An unexpected musical syntax pattern that is subsequently reappraised as fitting into a wider texture of musical syntax is an example of limbic contrast.