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Revolutions Project

By Muellysa Timmangen & Kristi Mac. Essay: https://docs.google.com/document/d/19cl_6l1POzvSoQK7o4GEmhs-NeUQ9qRmG3RCEvO_o1o/edit?usp=sharing
by

Muellysa Timmangen

on 20 September 2015

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Transcript of Revolutions Project

Voltaire was looked at as the base of France because of his philosophy and the way that he saw things. Voltaire was a valuable person during the French Revolution because people respected him and he was able to observe things that no one else could. He was against infringing on rights and prejudice during his time. He supported religious freedom, free trade, and social reform. His perspective on social reform was very outspoken and he criticized Catholic dogma and French institutions using satire. He took advantage of his works to find ways of improving the French Revolution.
Key Events
Revolutions Project
By Muellysa Timmangen & Kristi Mac
Revolutionary
Symbols
The Storming of the Bastille
The Bastille, a prison, was a symbol of the monarch's tyrannical rule, one of the most crucial events that had ever happened during the revolution. Parisian citizens were affected as the news about The Storming of the Bastille had spread. The three estates, Clergy, Aristocrats,
The Boston Tea Party
The Revolutionary cause of the Boston Tea Party was 'taxation without representation'. The British raised the taxes for the Americans, but would not allow them to vote for the country's laws. Britain had realized that Americans were drinking a high amount of tea every year and decided to use it to their advantage by imposing taxes onto the Americans. The Boston Tea Party was a symbol of the Colonists' rebellion towards the British. Their actions caused the British to lose a vast amount of money. This event is what established the beginning of the American Revolution because it drove the country to become more independent. The aftermath of the Boston Tea Party shaped the Americans and led them to understand that this incident made Americans realize that they were citizens who loved freedom and would not tolerate any tyranny that happened to them.
The February Revolution
The February Revolution is an important event that happened in the Russian Revolution. It was well-known, but it did not exactly fulfill the Russian's demand. The revolution removed Tsar Nicholas II off of the thrown because the union and economy was not strong enough. Tsar displayed violent riots in the streets of Petrograd that caused poverty and starvation in Russia. The provisional government temporary replaced Tsar later on in time, taking power from the revolution. The February Revolution symbolizes the fact that Russia was unable to develop a community that met the people's requirements in order to live.
The Liberty Cap
The Liberty Cap, or Phrygian Cap, is a French revolutionary symbol that showed power and freedom. The French used this to show that freedom was worth fighting for because it represented the ideals of liberty, equality for the nation, and brotherhood. This symbol is significant
The Snake
The Snake, also known as 'Join, or Die', is well-known for representing colonial union and colonial freedom during the American Revolution. This symbol was important to the American Revolution because Benjamin Franklin used it to advertise the importance about colonial unity. It symbolizes the American Revolution because the colonies need to join together in order to defeat the other colonies or be independent.
The Hammer and the Sickle
Political Theorists
Voltaire
John Locke/Adam Smith
John Locke was seen as a highly famous philosopher about politics and education. He helped restore the use of the Board of Trade, which in return, observed the new territories in North America. Locke was an important philosopher that impacted the Western thoughts. His arguments regarding the separation of Church and State, religious freedom, and liberty, had not only affected philosophers in Europe, but had also formed a new way of how Americans viewed things.

Adam Smith claims that a nation's amount of resources should be based off of how much that nation can produce and market. Before that, it was based on how much gold and silver they currently had. Similar to John Locke, Smith was viewed as an economist and a philosopher who wrote about points of the beginning of the political economy. America has chosen Smith as a basis of the nation because his ideas were based on economics at the start of the Industrial Revolution. He believes that an economy without government involvement and when the prices are based off of supply and demand is the best option for a society.
Karl Marx
Key Actors
King Louis XVl
King Louis XVI was the king of France during the French Revolution. When he was crowned, Louis XVI was shy and lacked of self-confidence, which led him to debt and resentment towards monarchy. He had many flaws and had no strengths, ultimately making him unable to improve and control France's government. Louis XVI focused mainly on foreign policies during his reign. His policy focused on American colonies and led to increasing debt because of international loans and taxes. This made the country almost go bankrupt. Louis XVI neglected France's problems and created a downfall for the country by initiating the French Revolution. In 1789, Louis XVI held a meeting for the Estates General. The Third Estate declared itself the title of National Assembly to develop a constitution. Louis XVI called out an army to bring things back to normal, but was forced to acknowledge the National Assembly. This movement led to the Storming of the Bastille in an attempt to riot the king. Louis XVI ignored all of the advice that he received from nobles and ended up losing all of his credibility as a monarch. During the last two years of his reign, Louis XVI was suspected of treason because of the war in April, 1792 and he ended up getting suspended of his power. In September, 1792, Louis XVI was found guilty of secret dealings and was executed in the next few months. After his execution, France turned into a republic until Napoleon came and made it an Empire.
King George III
Czar Nicholas ll
Czar Nicholas II's main goal of his foreign policy during the beginning of his reign was to keep up with the way that things worked in Europe instead of winning a new land by force. People requested Nicholas to develop a better working condition and create a well-known assembly, but the people were attacked with open fire, executing thousands of them. During the changes of his country, he did not dare consider any other rules, but the past laws. In turn, this attack was named the "Bloody Sunday". In WWI, Nicholas selected himself as the commander-in-chief in order to have full access to control of the military and went against the ministers' judgement. After that, Nicholas was on leave and during his leave, the sovereign became more and more detached and often relied on Rasputin, who greatly affected her perspective on politics.

Key Documents
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen is one of the most important documents from before the French Revolution. The document listed rights, such as freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and separation of powers. It talked about the rights of men. The themes in the document was to make everyone equal and a Frenchman. French people all loved the declaration while people who were not French did not. King Louis XVI signed the document under pressure, but never to support what it said and what it implied. After the document became well-known, the French Revolution took place and led to Napolean taking lead during the Revolution.
The Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia
The Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia was a document that was signed on November 15, 1917 by Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin. The document was made to give equality and power to Russian people. Lenin and Stalin agreed to give land because they had no independent power to save them since Russia lost parts of their territories to Central Powers. The purpose of the document was to calm down the public after Russia had lost their territories. In Russian history, the document is one of the main reasons for the freeing of Central European states.
Former Leaders
Key Actors
Napoleon
Napoleon eventually became a leader of France by force after helping overthrow the government of the Directory. This implies that by taking the symbolic power of France, he was able to have access to the entire nation after crowning himself as the Emperor. He had planned to be a symbolic leader as others were controlling the country in his shadows. Napoleon was somewhat of a hypocrite because he supported the ideas of the French Revolution, but at the same time, he wanted to destroy them. He would use nationalism at his advantage to pursue his goals. His belief of the revolution was that all of France should reflect on his goals and values, and because of this reason, it impacted the whole world's perspective on how things should be handled.
George Washington
Trotsky
Revolutionaries
The hammer and sickle is a symbol that was well-known during the Russian Revolution. The hammer represented industrial workers whilst the sickle represented peasantry and farmers. During the revolution, workers
and peasants believed that they should have been the ones to rule. The importance of this symbol was when the symbols were put together, they represented how the workers and peasants made an alliance for socialism and an alliance against foreign intervention and reactionary movements. The significance of this symbol was shown by making workers and peasants well-known around the world, and without it, workers and farmers today would be underestimated.
George Washington was well-known for his leadership and bravery through his actions and decisions in the battle to defeat France during the American Revolution. Although Washington had little knowledge of practical experience in guiding a large army, he showed that he was capable of accomplishing acts as one of the leaders of America. Even though he lost more than he won, he engaged in the battle with a leading plan. Washington made a worthy decision to his future people to sacrifice his commission to Congress, promising control of the military in United States. Comparing Washington to Napoleon, they were both leaders, but Washington was given the power and elected as a leader rather than taking it by force like Napoleon.
and Commons, were the ones who initiated the storming of the Bastille, but King Louis XVI was the one who somewhat stimulated it because he wanted to destroy the National Assembly by sending in his troops. This event became the French Population's collective consciousness. It became a symbolic importance in France that is still known today.
The Russian Revolution was influenced by Karl Marx when he explained his key concerns on the political economy, capital, landed property, the state, wage labor, foreign trade, and the world market in 1857. Marx wrote an 800-page manuscript called Das Kapital about his concerns. The Russian Revolution was built based off of what he wrote. Marx argued that the people who worked should have fought to bring out changes about money. Marx believed the problems that the society had with capitalism would one day implode on a more international scale. Marx's writing had a big effect on the world because it talked about the struggles that people went through and talked about the problems of people who were wealthy versus people who were not wealthy. He is one of the most important and famous people in history because of his work.
Leon Trotsky made a big impact on the Russian Revolution and after the Russian Revolution. In 1905, Trotsky gained news of a person who was killed by the Imperial Guard and returned to Russia. He became the leader of the movement. When his rebellion was destroyed, Trotsky was arrested and was forced to go to Siberia. In 1907, he escaped from prison and traveled to Europe. When Trotsky was allowed to return to Russia, he noticed problems that raised after the Revolution. Trotsky did not like the new prime minister at that time and was then arrested because the prime minister saw him as a threat. Trotsky was soon released from prison and was elected as the chairman of Petrograd Soviet. Trotsky's first role in the government was commissar for reign affairs to make peace with Germany. Trotsky originally did not agree with the German, but soon saw how they worked and eventually resign from his position. Trotsky soon became the leader of the Red Army and led them to victory during the Russian Civil War. Trotsky's military skills led to him be elected as a member of the Communist Party Central Committee. Trotsky soon gained enemies and eventually dropped from his position. He was forcible kicked out of government positions and out of Rusisia. In 1925, Trotsky pushed his way back into power, but was then exiled a few years later. While exiled, he continued to criticize the Soviet government which eventually led him to be assassinated by secret Russian police. 60 years after Trotsky's death, he was finally recognized as one of the most important and brilliant people during the Russian Revolution and post-Russian Revolution.
because it was worn at during the Fall of the Bastille. The cap was worn for republican liberty and hope that enemies would lose and back down.
The Declaration of Independence was a document that was made on July 4, 1776 that announced and explained the independence of the thirteen American colonies, who no longer wished to be controlled by the British Empire. John Adams persuaded the committee to select Thomas Jefferson to draft the document so that Congress could edit and create the final document. The document was an explanation of why Congress had just decided to declare independence from Great Britain, more than a year after the American Revolution had happened. The document also gave evidence of abuse that had happened while the colonies were serving under the British Empire.
King George III became the prime minister in 1770. Three years later, he developed an act to demand tax from the colonies. When he demanded tax without representation, it caused the Americans to protest and create the Boston Tea Party. King George III treated the colonists like he owned them. They were treated differently from the slaves and he seized all of what the colonists had and did not provide them with anything in return. King George's actions initiated the American Revolution in 1775 when the Americans stated that they did not want to be controlled by the British Empire anymore. They had realized that George III was not as great of a king. He created conflicts that wasted his right to rule the colonies.
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