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Copy of Music History
Transcript of Copy of Music History
A History of the Universal Language
He was one of the first members of the Notre Dame School. In this sense, the word "school" does not necessarily refer to a set of classes with students and teachers, but describes a common way of thinking and composing.
Leoninus (aka Leonin/Leo)
Leonin was among the first to compose polyphonic music. Leonin is most famous for recording a large book of organum which was called the "Magnus Liber Organi," which literally means "The Big Book of Organum".
Music is the common denominator of every generation.
It is the history book of human creativity.
Every era and genre of music is connected.
You will explore each period from beginning to present.
It is assumed that music was created for spiritual needs and entertainment.
Music has been present since the beginning.
The very first instruments used in creating music was the voice, percussive items (like drums or clapping) and wooden or bone flutes.
A practical use for these instruments were as lures for hunting.
Before AD 500
During this time, basic notes and scales were being formed.
Different styles were beginning to develop in different areas of the world. These areas include:
(the most widely used, even today!) is an eight note scale of seven tones and one octave.
is a five note scale most famously used in the oriental style of music.
It can be easily played on the black keys of a piano!
AD 500 - 1450
Medieval music reflects the social and religious traditions of European culture in the Middle Ages.
Lasting nearly 1000 years, the Medieval Period is the longest era of music in the AD years.
The sacred music of the Catholic Church was most prevalent.
However, secular music was also very popular.
Plainchant is a very religious type of tune.
, meaning there is only one melody line with no harmony.
Plainchant has no set tempo, giving it a free and wandering feel.
Plainchant is also known as
, named after Pope Gregory I for his contribution to establish its usage in the Catholic church.
Despite the single melodies of plainchant, many music theorists began experimenting with multiple melody lines.
They used the fourth, fifth, and octave intervals between these woven melodies. This style became known as
As organum developed, the melody lines began to flow independently (illustrated above).
It was especially popular in the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris.
Organum was also called
, Latin for
1450 - 1600
It was a rebirth of learning and of art in the European culture.
Music played a very important role in this "rebirth".
During this time, Catholicism was losing its dominant place in society because of Martin Luther's Protestant Reformation.
The Reformation created a humanist spirit evident in the Period's music.
Renaissance Dance Music is characterized by buoyant rhythms and sounds.
Dance music is solely instrumental.
An example of Renaissance Dance is Francisco de la Torre's
Renaissance Polyphony is very reflective of the Medieval Organum.
Like organum, polyphony is the interweaving of multiple melody lines.
It generally uses four melody lines (represented above).
You are listening to Josquin de Prez's
, a great example of Renaissance Polyphony.
The English Madrigal is just the English version of Renaissance Polyphony.
Thomas Morely was a famous madrigalist.
You are listening to his
April is in My Mistress' Face.
Queen Elizabeth I was known to have enjoyed the madrigal music. She was also a skilled lute player. (A lute is a guitar-like instrument)
1600 - 1750
The Baroque Period was known for composers who rebelled agaisnt the customs of Renaissance Music.
During this time, Europe was filled with monarchs and the music reflected a feeling of pomp.
The Baroque period saw the birth of the opera and concerto genres.
The Baroque style is characterized by its ornamental and structured form.
Three great composers of the Baroque period are:
Handel played the viola, harpsichord, oboe, and organ by age 11.
German born, he was intrigued by the Italian style of opera.
He experimented with the Italian opera in England, and his works gained him popularity there.
Ready to leave, Queen Anne convinced him to stay in England.
Handel composed over 40 operas while in England.
Public appeal for opera soon faded, so he turned to
Oratorio is a dramatic, choral type of music in the Baroque period with biblical meaning.
You are listening to the
from Handel's famous oratorio
Vivaldi was an Italian composer and violinist.
A concerto in the Baroque Period was a style of virtuoso instrumental music.
He was widely known for his violin solos and string
You are listening to
The Four Seasons
One of Vivaldi's most famous works is
The Four Seasons
, a collection of four concertos.
Bach was born the youngest of eight children.
Both of his parents died when he was 10.
Bach was an accomplished organist. He played in many churches and served in many courts.
At Age 21, Bach married his cousin Maria Barbara
After having seven children, Maria died suddenly. Bach remarried Anna Magdelina.
Bach composed many works for keyboard, strings and orchestra throughout his musical career.
You are listening to the Brandenburg Concerto No. 3, one of Bach's most famous works for strings
Bach succombed to blindness in 1749 and died of a stroke in 1750.
He is currently burried at Leipzig's Church of St. Thomas. Music scholars mark his death as the end of the Baroque era.
The Classical Period was known for its clean, uncluttered style.
Composers wanted to break away from the ornamentation of Baroque music.
They attempted to achieve a sound reminisent of Ancient Greece.
Three popular composers of the Classical Period are:
Haydn, second of 12 children, was born into a poor but musical family.
In 1781, he and Mozart became close friends and admired each other's music.
Haydn was a key developer of the symphony and string quartet
1750 - 1820
The Classical Period saw the development of symphonies, sonatas, and string quartets.
He composed literally hundreds of sonatas, quartets, symphonies, operas, and concertos.
Haydn loved adding humor to his works, like his "surprise" in
Symphony No. 94 in G Major
that you are listening to.
Mozart was an accomplished musician by the age of 4.
He began composing by age 6 and composed his first symphony by age 8.
Mozart spent the majority of his time on tour and performing between ages 7 and 15.
He was considered a master of all genres of his time (including serenades, dances, strings, winds, solo piano, symphony, and operas.
As mentioned earlier, Mozart and Haydn were close friends.
Haydn told Mozart's father, "Before God and as an honest man, your son is the greatest composer I know, either personally or by name."
You are listening to one of Mozart's most recognizable sanatas,
Rondo alla Turca (Turkish March)
Beethoven was forced into music training by his drunkard father. He wanted his son to be like Mozart.
Failing, he began to study under Haydn in 1792.
Now succeeding in his music carrer, he bacame known throughout Europe in 1794.
Beethoven brought a dramatic tone to the Classical genre through his compositions.
To his horror, he began to lose his hearing and became completely deaf.
Struggling to compose, he contemplated suicide. Despite this, he continued his carreer.
You are listening to one of his most recognizable works,
1810 - 1910
The Romantic Period gets its name from the heroic medieval romances its music reflectcs.
Composers of this time achieved a greater depth of emotion that sets them apart from the Classical Period.
Three well known composers of the Romantic period are:
Mendelssohn showed a talent for music at an early age.
He based his compositions on things that intrigued him.
He composed an entire overture based on Shakespeare's
A Midsummer Night's Dream
You are listening to
, a work in which Mendelssohn depicts the ancient caverns of Scotland.
Born in Poland, Chopin is known as the "Polish poet of the piano".
His love for the piano led to his over 200 solo piano compositions.
You are listening to his
Etude op. 10-12 (Revolutionary)
It is a prime example of the heroism and emotional depth the Romantic composers acheived.
Born of a poor German family, Brahms tried and struggled to use music as a source of income.
The Romantic era was fading, and his compositions were an attempt to continue Romanticism.
Brahm's later works evolved into a mix of Classical finesse and Romantic emotion.
This hybrid of music can be heard in his late work
Symphony No, 3 in F major, Op. 20.
2oth and 21st Centuries
1900 - Present
Some composers and artists of the 20th Century tried to stay true to the Classical and Romantic styles.
Many set themselves apart and broke away from the dying Romantic Period.
The 20th and 21st Century can not be defined as one genre. It is filled with loads of unique styles.
Three styles of this time you will explore are:
Impressionist music focuses creating an atmosphere rather than invoking emotions like Romantic music.
It uses abstract harmonies and fluid rhythms to create this atmosphere.
was actually stolen by the Impressionist artists and paintings this genre reflects.
One of the most notable Impressionist composers is Claude Debussy.
You are listening to his famous piano piece
Clair de Lune
20th and 21st Centuries
Jazz is arguably the most revolutionary music genre in American history.
Jazz became increasingly popular in the 1920s and 30s during
, and has been alive ever since.
Two of the greats from Jazz are Louis Armstrong and George Gershwin.
Armstrong, for his New Orleans style and his talent on the trumpet
Gershwin, for his fusion of Jazz and orchestra.
20th and 20st Centuries
Rock was just as revolutionary as Jazz.
Rock has its beginnigs in the 1950s with the earliest rock-and-roll songs.
Rock is such a vague genre with so many sub-genres (i.e. hard rock, rock-and-roll, jazz rock, metal, pop, etc.) that it could almost be considered a Period in itself.
Since then, it has shaped nearly every genre to come to this present day.
The basic "formula" for general rock music is:
You are listening to Chicago's
25 or 6 to 4
One presentation cannot possibly hold all of the
amazing music man has created.
Still, music history is not over. It is being made everyday.
How will future generations contribute to music?
You are listening to Armstrong's
Wild Man Blues.
First notated Music
The first notated (written down) music was found on a Greek tombstone. It was not written with notes on a staff because they had not yet been invented, but other symbols above the greek letters.
The piece, originating from about 100 CE is called "Seikilos Epitaph". An epitaph is a poem traditionally carved on a grave marker to commemorate a person's life, personality, and provide comfort, inspiration, and direction to those visiting the burial place.
Hildegard von Bingen
Throughout the history of western civilization, women have not been allowed a voice in writing and composing music. When they did write music, it was often published under a pseudonym (a made up name), a male friend or relative's name, or simply not at all.
Hildegard of Bingen (a small town in what is now Germany) was an exception. From the young age of eight, she lived at a monastery, where she received an education. At 18, she became a nun, devoting the rest of her life to serving God. In her mid-life, she experienced colorful visions brought on by severe migraine headaches. She recorded these in detailed drawings and interpreted them in her writings.
She wrote many monophonic chant songs, led her own convent, and constantly answered letters asking for advice that were sent to her by all kinds of people (from peasants to major political leaders). We can think of her as the "Dear Abbey" of the 11th century. She also wrote several books and a lot of poetry.
"Alleluia, O Virga Mediatrix"
Guido of Arezzo
Born around the end of 10th century, Guido was an Italian monk credited for the invention of the musical staff (the horizontal lines which show pitch and rhythm in notated music).
He was also a great music teacher and developed a way to teach people the correct notes to sing using a diagram of a hand (called the Guidonian hand).
In addition, he came up a system for sight-singing using syllables (Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Ti, Do) so that people could sing music they had never before heard just by looking at the notes on the staff. These came from the a chant piece he had written called "Ut Queant Laxis". The first syllable "Ut" was later changed to "Do".
Guido was a genius!
These early compositions had to be hand-written and copied because the printing press had not yet been invented. Many of these were
with very ornate, detailed pictures and letters. Notice the two different melody lines in Leonin's the organum sample above.
the philosophy focused on the beauty of the human form and ability for humans to perfect themselves and improve
through art, philosophy, and science.
Painter and Sculptor.
Painted the fresco on the Sistine Chapel.
Leonardo da Vinci
Painter, Scientist, and Inventor
Besides painting two of the most valuable pieces of artwork in the world, "The Last Supper" and "The Mona Lisa".
The birthplace of the Renaissance. Here wealthy people (patrons) supported the arts with their financial means. The most influential patron of arts during that time was the de Medici family.
Brunelleschi's Dome in Florence, Italy
The "Mona Lisa" painting is an excellent example of the interplay of light and shadow that was so popular during the Renaissance. These ideas soon found their way into music, which gained a dramatic flare as a result.
Artists during the Renaissance period tried to re-create images as true to life as possible. In doing so, they started using visual cues like a vanishing horizon to suggest real world depth in their artwork.
Probably the greatest writer of renaissance madrigals and motets.
All kinds of artists and great thinkers gathered in Florence to learn from one another and be inspired by the creative atmosphere, including architects, painters, sculptors, philosophers, and, of course, musicians. The general style was to recreate nature as perfectly and accurately as humanly possible.
Painting a fresco means painting on wet plaster before it dries. Two of his most famous marble sculptures are the "David" and the "Pietá", Both are located in Rome, Italy.
Da Vinci also invented the first camera, drew prototypes of the first glider and helicopter, and studied the human body in great detail, including recording some of the first autopsies on cadavers.
More than 1 note per syllable
Note: Adding the suffix
turns "melisma" (a noun) into an adjective
used to describe the music
Example: "The Star Spangled Banner "
sung by Mariah Carey
- 1 note per syllable
Note: Adding the suffix "ic" turns "syllable" (a noun) into an adjective
used to describe the music
Example: "We Will Rock You"
by the British Rock Band, Queen
A Catholic priest in the 1500s, Martin Luther observed practices in the church he felt contradicted scripture. He nailed a long list of 95 points (called his 95 theses) denouncing these wrongs, to the door of the castle church. Because of this, he is called the father of the Protestant Reformation.
sacred polyphony based on text other than scripture. Often, Motets include a technique called
Listening Sample: Thomas Weelkes "As Vesta Was Descending Latmos Hill"
Other Renaissance Artists
"The Adoration of the Magi"
"The School of Athens"
Josquin was a French composer (1445-1500) who started writing a new type of music:
Tension, Discord, Stress,
When the musical notes embody the
meaning of a words.
For example: singing an ascending line of pitches while singing about someone walking up a hill.
In polyphonic music, often one voice begins a musical idea, then others imitate the first melody at different pitch levels of their own at different times. This is called
See YouTube pitch visualization.
Listening Sample: "Ave Maria Virgo Serena"
by Josquin de Pres
is simply the secular (non-religious) version of the motet.
Since he worked for the Catholic church, most of his work is sacred (religious).
Listening Sample: "Missa Papae Marcelli - Agnus Dei"
(part of a mass written to honor
Pope Marcellus II.)
Originally, only monks could sing in church because the entire service had to be sung and spoken in Latin. Luther worked to change this so that the entire church service could be performed in the
(language of the common people).
Martin Luther wrote the text and music of many songs for monophonic
in German (his own common language). Because his music was mostly syllabic (only one note per syllable), it was relatively easy for large groups of people untrained people to learn and sing.
- a string instrument played by turning a crank. The crank rotates a horse-hair disk, which scrapes against the strings and a resonator body amplifies the sound. While some of the strings always stay open, others can be pressed down with mechanical keys to change their pitch.
- A metal frame that makes a "doing" sound and held between the players teeth when played.
Electric Hurdy Gurdy:
Jews Harp Street Performer
Jews Harp TED
Cylindrical woodwind instrument with a very low range. It is played with a double-reed inserted in the top knob or into a metal neck.
A double-reed woodwind instrument similar to the oboe.
A guitar-like instrument from the renaissance with a crooked neck, rounded body, and about 15 strings (the modern guitar has only 6).
Solo - https://goo.gl/8985Yj
- brass instrument precursor to the modern trombone. Ensemble: https://goo.gl/tkAkPs
Early Tuba from the Renaissance:
Early keyboard instrument with quills that pluck strings instead of hammers that strike them.
Jesu Joy of Man's... https://goo.gl/0XKxVy
Toccatta and Fugue... https://goo.gl/V8501N
Little Fugue... https://goo.gl/iPNL7s
Water Music: https://goo.gl/Ypg8cI
Vivaldi worked for a girl's school called Ospedale at an orphanage in Venice, Italy. Unlike traditional orphanage's, the parents of these girls were still living. The father's were very often politically powerful noblemen who had an extra-marital relationship which produced the daughter - who was then considered illegitimate and not accepted by society. Although there was no relationship with their father, each girl was supported financially and brought up in high class.
Baroque Pipe Organs
Pipe organs reached their peak of popularity during the Baroque period. Very elaborate and decorated organs were built at this time. Notice all the fancy sculptures and carving that are a part of the baroque organ to the left.
Pipe organs can have thousands of pipes and produce a very wide variety of timbres. Some factors that affect the sound (harmonics) of each pipe include: the overall length and width (32', 16', 8', 4', 2'), the material each is made from (tin, lead, brass, wood, etc.), how the pipe produces the sound (fipple flute type or reed type), the shape of each pipe (circular, square, oval, conical, cylindrical), and where the pipe is placed within the organ structure.
The pipe organ above is located in the Mormon Tabernacle in Salt Lake City. This building is said to have the best acoustics of any hall in the USA. Daily organ recitals are scheduled for free. The largest pipe organ in Nevada is located on the UNLV campus in the Beam Music Building. Check UNLV's performing arts calendar to find out when to see it played.
The Organ Console
The organ can have many keyboards (called manuals) and dozens of stops (each controls a series of with various tone colors).There is even a keyboard for the feet to play called the pedal organ (which is organized in the same way as the finger keys). These buttons are housed in a wooden box called the organ console.
Not all pipes produce sound. In most pipe organs, only about half the visible pipes in the organ facade (face) are speaking pipes, the others are for decoration - to make the organ appear more symmetrical. Most of the sound-producing pipes are hidden within the organ.
Bach wrote hundreds of sacred cantatas, large pieces of music with many sections which included choir, vocal soloists, organ, and orchestra. These were based on religious texts and earlier chorales in both Latin and german by composers like Martin Luther. Unlike Luther's music (which was relatively simple and syllabic), Bach used very complex polyphony which included imitation (copy-catting) technique (which became known as fugue style) to a great degree. See the listening samples to the left for examples.