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High culture and popular culture
Transcript of High culture and popular culture
Popular Culture and High Culture. An Analysis and Evaluation of Taste
High culture and popular culture
US - cultural struggle
allocation of power and resources
high culture - popular culture
"mass culture critique"
"the nature of the good life"
which culture/whose culture should dominate/represent in society
19th century onwards - USA
free time activities
alcohol (taverns, music halls ...)
1960s - new "enemy":
- growing power, income, influence of intellectuals
art increasingly separated from class?
do not disappear
-> (commercial) popular culture
1970s movements: feminism, civil rights
ideas threaten the position of pro-Establishment intellectuals
Gans predicts the return of mass culture critique
1980s - Raegan, Conservativism, "backlash"
symbolic products used by the
problem: works of high culture can also be popular
consist of values, the cultural forms that express these values, and the media in which these are expressed;
they include the values, forms and media of the natural and social sciences and philosophy -
including their commercial popularization and "folk wisdom"; they have political values, even if not expressed explicitly
taste cultures are cultures based on
(a narrower culture concept than that of anthropology)
The Critique of Mass Culture
1. the negative character of
popular culture creation
2. the negative effects on
3. the negative effects on popular culture
4. the negative effects on
1. Popular culture's defects as a commercial enterprise
mass culture is an industry organized for profit
in order to be profitable, it must create a
homogenous and standardized product
that appeals to a mass audience
the industry transforms the creator into a worker on a mass production assembly line
high culture is implicitly the opposite: where personal artistic concerns dominate
Is profit not a concern within
the sphere of high culture?
Gans: each culture is
sensitive to its own diversity
hence the significance of ...
cultural studies, television studies, popular music studies, fan studies
creator orientation vs user orientation
experimentation - expected but also with difficulties - in both cultures
classicization (e.g. sixties' pop culture)
2. Popular culture's danger to high culture
popular culture borrows from high culture with the consequence of debasing it
by offering economic incentives, popular culture is able to lure away potential high culture creators
Gans: (1) reverse is also true - high culture borrows from popular culture
(2) not all high culture creators can produce popular culture
3. Popular culture's impact on its audience
destructive: provides spurious gratification; brutalizes through its emphasis on violence and sex
destructive: impairing people's ability to partake in high culture
is a better explanation
(isolation, depression, narcoticization, violence)
media - impact studies
theoretical turn: not Pavlovian conditioning
- but: social embeddedness, socialization, social network, selective perception
school shooting debates
4. Popular culture's harmfulness to society
1. popular culture lowers the taste level of society as a whole, thus impairing its quality as a civilization
2. mass media can "narcoticize" and "atomize" people and thus render them susceptible to techniques of mass persuasion (propaganda)
"distance from necessity"