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Invertebrate Animals

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Sandra T

on 9 June 2013

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Transcript of Invertebrate Animals

Some hatch as adults, with no appreciable larval stage Evolution one of the most basic life forms on earth discovery of ancient sponge steroids suggests that multi-cellular animals existed 635 million years ago by: Aleesha and sandra Invertebrate Animals Worms Echinoderms Phylum Echinodermata Molluscs Sponges (Phylum Porifera) bottom is attached to a hard surface (i.e. rock)
two layers of cells: each cell is independent
no nervous system, vascular system or muscles - no tissues
adults are sessile
food particles are trapped in internal channels as water passes through Cnidarians (Phylum Cnidaria) one of the oldest animal group
Body: two layer cells, muscle and nervous tissues
swim and capture prey with stingers near the mouth Two body forms Polyp: tube-shaped sessile body
Medusa: umbrella-shaped, free-swimming body Mouth Gastrovascular Cavity Mouth made up of calcium carbonate plates, usually with spines attached
covered by a thin layer of skin marine animals have radial symmetry, spiny endoskeletons, and tube feet endoskeleton: internal skeleton sea star sea cucumber sand dollar sea urchin symmetry around a central axis Tentacle Tentacle small muscular tubes filled with fluids that end in structures that are similar to suction cups How they move, eat and breathe water vascular system
a system made up of tubes
they force water through their tube feet causing them to extend, then use their muscles to retract them Reproduction some are asexual most are sexual Japanese feather star Starfish Asexual Reproduction in Starfish Fission
1. starfish breaks apart at the center
2. each part regenerates its body parts

Autotomy
1. an arm breaks off - called a "comet"
2. it eventually regenerates all the body parts needed Sexual Reproduction 1. eggs or sperm are released into the water
2. they're fertilized
3. free-swimming larvae settle to the bottom SUCTION Structure Polyp (sessile) Medusae (mobile) Evolution Radial Symmetry? extensive mutation of genes from ancestors with bilateral symmetry - symmetry between two sides
pentaradial symmetry evolved before the water vascular system unique adaptation
could have evolved from a feeding structure in earlier sessile ancestors, then evolved for locomotion as well Flatworms (Phylum Platyhelminthes) -Least complex worm
-Acoelomates
-Flat shape allows oxygen go through body
-Examples: parasitic tapeworms and flukes Reproduction Sexually - most sponges are male and female 1. either sponge releases sperm into the water
2. the sperm enters the 'female' sponge
3. after fertilization, larva is released out of the sponge Asexually - budding 1. part of the sponge is broken off
2. the sponge piece regenerates into another sponge

sponges can also repair themselves Segmented Worms (Phylum Annelida) -Long tube shaped bodies divided into series of ringed segments
-Distinct head end and organs systems
-Examples: Earthworms Reproduction Polyp reproduce asexually by budding/cloning
a part of the parent polyp breaks off then grows into another organism Medusa sexual reproduction stage
male releases sperm into the water, fertilized by female
result: larva that hooks on to rock or hard surface - polyp Structure Represent ancestors of all animals with three tissue layers.
Degenerated from more-complex animals Evolution Respond to environment Adapted to a wide range of environments
Live in coastal marine habitats
sand, under rocks
Some marine species are pelagic Reproduction Budding new individual
Still able to regenerate after being severely damaged
Very common Evolution Evolved in the sea
possible from an ancestral flatworm
Divided into two major groups, the polychaetes and clitellates.
clitellates divided into oligochaetes (earthworms) and hirudinomorphs Environment Life Cycle Phylum Mollusca Second most diverse animal phylum
Bilateral symmetry
Coelom
All have similar bodies In all molluscs
Surrounds internal organs Life Process Evolution one of the largest groups that have evolved
members of the Lophotrochozoa group defined by having trochophore larvae
3 classes
-gastropods, bivalves, cephalopods Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction
Hermaphrodites have both male and female reproductive organs
Asexual Reproduction
Fission Mainly unknown Stage animals undergo before
they transform into an adult Can be found anywhere on earth polychaetes clitellates oligochaetes hirudinomorphs Mantle Cephalopods Bivalves Gastropods Marine organisms with tentacles
ex: octopus, squids and etc. Marine and fresh water species protected by a shell
ex: clams, mussels and etc. In terrestrial freshwater
ex: shelled snails, non-shelled slugs, etc. Reproduction Hermaphrodites.
Fertilization occurs externally
Sperm in the water fertilizes eggs forms plank tonic larval stage. Reproduction Hermaphroditic
Both male and female reproductive organs mate mutually but prefer to find another snail
Females produce eggs internally Reproduction Male produces arm-hectocotylus
Goes to females pallial cavity to fertilize Live short life
Mature rapidly
Life span one to two years
Die shortly after reproduction Life Process Life Process Embryonic development
My be trochophore or veliger
Estivation and hibernation egg case made by female squid Reproduction earthworm structure has mouth and pharynx at front and bilateral symmetry -Three layers of cells (endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm )
-Bilateral Symmetry
-Cephalization Female and males organisms release egg and sperm Develop into trochophore larvae (leeches) Ensure successful hatching by producing a jelly like substance Mainly live in marine environments found in moist terrestrial areas Questions What type of symmetry do worms have?
A: Bilateral
What is the difference between the segmented and flatworm structure?
A: Flat worm mouth is in the middle of the worm and segmented is at the top
What are the three types of molluscs?
A: Bivalves, Gastropods, Cephalopods
What type of molluscs is protected by a shell?
A:Bivalves
What do all molluscs have in common? explain what it is.
A: Mantle, contains all internal organs What are examples of echinoderms?
A:Star Fish, Sea Urchins and sand dollars
How do starfish reproduce?
A: Fission or Budding
What are the two body forms of cnidarians?
A: Polyp and Medusa
Name a similarity and difference between cnidarians and sponges
A: both have two layers of cell, Cnidarians have tissues sponges dont Describe life cycle of a jelly fish
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