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Transcript of The Atom
Born on August 30, 1871, in Nelson, New Zealand, the fourth child in a family of seven sons and five daughters , Ernest Rutherford is unanimously know as the father of nuclear physics. He studied under the leadership of J.J Thompson , and later began his own inqueries/theories. In his gold foil experiment , Rutherford described the nuclear structure of an atom , and how radioactivity was the spontaneous disintegration of atoms .Indeed he was the first person to disintegrate an element. The theory derived for the experiment was that the atom had a central positive nucleus surrounded by negative orbiting electrons.This experiment involved the firing of radioactive particles through minutely thin metal foils (notably gold) and detecting them using screens coated with zinc sulfide (a scintillator). Rutherford found that although the vast majority of particles passed straight through the foil approximately 1 in 8000 were deflected leading him to his theory that most of the atom was made up of 'empty space'. However , Rutherford's model could not explain the position of electrons in an atom , and during this time orbits were not discovered yet. He belived that electrons were placed similar to the Plum Pudding Model , by J.J Thompson , but the key difference between the two was that Rutherford acknowledged the presence of protons , Thompson did not.
He discovered the neutron by re-doing experiments that balanced out the protons in a nucleus. He was appointed assistant director of the lab by Earnest Rutherford and worked along his side. They both realized that protons and electrons were not the only things that were added to the mass of an atom. Chadwick's own research involved radioactivity tracking particle radiations. he was specifically looking for something that had no charge with the mass of a proton.
Niels Henrik David Bohr, AKA Niels Bohr, he was born on October 7, 1885 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Bohr became an accomplished physicist who came up with the atomic structures. He had won the Noble Prize in physics in 1922. With his own research he came to discover that atoms give off electromagnetic radiation. Bohr also studied in University of Copenhagen.
He was know for the Bohr model which he introduced in 1913. Bohr's model had electrons orbiting the nucleus in shell-like layers. His model explains how electrons can have stable orbits around the nucleus. To fix Rutherford's model he required that the electrons move in orbits of fixed size and energy. The energy of an electron depends on the size of the orbit and its energy is lower for smaller orbits. His theory was an expansion from Rutherford's theory/Model.
Democritus was the first to propose the existence of atoms in 400B.C. He reasoned that matter cannot be divided indefinitely and must consist of indivisible round particles called atoms.
460B.C – 370B.C; postulated the existence of invisible atoms characterized only by quantitative properties: size, shape, and motion.
In 1800, John Dalton arrived at the same view of atomism by using the experimental method to study gases and compounds. His model was called the solid sphere, or billiard ball model.
John Dalton (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, meteorologist and physicist. He is best known for his pioneering work in the development of modern atomic theory, and his research into colour blindness (sometimes referred to as Daltonism, in his honour).
Dalton's Atomic Theory
1) All matter is made of atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible.
2) All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties
3) Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms.
4) A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms.
Born December 18,1856 Manchester, England
Died August 30, 1940 in Cambridge, England (aged 83)
Won Noble Prize in Physics in 1906
Published 13 books
Knighted by King Edward VII
Buried in Westminster Abbey near to Issac Newton and Charles Darwin
Joseph John Thomson
Cathode Ray must be made of Atoms that is negatively charged
Particles that make up cathode rays are 1,000 times smaller than a Hydrogen Atom
All different combinations of metals give off Cathode Rays
Atoms have tiny, negatively charged particles inside them called Electrons
Cathode Ray Tube Experiment of the Electron- 1897
Electrons are negatively charged
Atoms are Neutral
It has positively charges in the atom to balance out the electrons
Aristotle (Born in 384 BC; Stagira, Greece.)Where he studied a very wide variety of sciences, including: logic, philosophy, ethics, physics, biology, psychology, politics, and rhetoric. according to (<http://the-history-of-the-atom.wikispaces.com/Aristotle>) Web. accessed 29 November 2013. When the Atomic Theory was discovered it is said that he did not believe in it. Instead he abided by his own ideology that all matter was made up of fire, air, earth, and water. No matter the shape, form, or fashion, he still believed so. Most people followed Aristotle’s idea, causing Democritus’ idea- which was that all substances on Earth where made of small particles called atoms- to be overlooked for about 2,000 years. However, Aristotle's view was FINALLY proven incorrect and his teachings are not present in the modern view of the atom today.
Protons & Neutrons
Final; Nitrogen (N)
Combined the equations for the behavior of waves with de Brogile equation to generate a mathematical model for the distribution of electrons in an atom.
The Schrodinger model assumes that the electron is a wave and tries to describe the region in space, or orbitals, where electrons are most likely to be found.
The model describes the probability that an electron can be found in a given space at a given time.
This model no longer tells us where the electron is; it on,y tells us where it might be.
The three coordinates that come from Schrodinger's wave equations are the principal (n), angular (l), and magnetic (m) quantum numbers.
This also describes the size, shape, and orientation in space.