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Transcript of Surgery CLC
the build up of liquid inside the skull Arteriography, it is when a special dye is embedded into the veins, or arteries to examine how the inside looks like. This tells the tester how clogged the arteries are.
Cranial Ultrasound, used to examine the blood flow inside of the brain. Surgery Unfortunately, one's brain can't completely recover from a severe injury, but physicians do all they can to bring back as much brain function as possible. Since the brain can't fully recover, there are long term side effects. Congenital Abnormalities
Birth Defects Congenital abnormalities can be treated with pediatric surgery; early treatment is provided for children with functional difficulties. Treatments include gene therapy, enzyme replacement therapy, and prenatal treatment. For birth defects that cannot be cured, doctors focus on keeping the side effects and symptoms of the disease under control. Some cases may simply require surgery that are able to heal the infant, but other cases that have no cure, may require ongoing treatment. In either case, there is no guarantee of survival. However, advances in the health care field give more hope to families. The side effects are that after the shunt is inserted the patient needs to get checked regularly. Also if something bad happens to the shunt it needs to get repaired and that can be detrimental to the health. Surgical Advances •Robotics have been used in surgery for the past ten years but are only now really beginning to change the field and the future of the profession.
•Surgical robots allow for significantly more precise surgery, less incisions, and less room for error. Work with a resolution of less than 1 nanometer (DNA is 2.5 nanometers)
•The robot used in surgery most commonly today is the da Vinci Surgical System. This consists of a console where the surgeon views a highly magnified 3-D image of the body’s interior and master hand controls and pedals to manipulate the body of the robot. The body of the da Vinci holds up to three specially designed tool arms and a 3-D camera.
• Surgical robotic are used primarily for urology and gynecology related surgeries and some cardiac repair.
•Drawbacks: A da Vinci costs about $1.8 million, not including the training needed to use it. Surgeons being taught primarily on surgical robotics are not as proficient in traditional surgery which is needed in many cases and in other countries where such technology may not be available. Robotics are only used for select types of surgery and is not widely enough used to become a common practice in hospitals because of its currents limits. ROBOTIC SURGERY TELE- MEDICINE/
LONG-DISTANCE SURGERY •Tele-Medicine is the use of robotics and the internet to perform surgery where the patient and the surgeon are a city, state, or even continent away.
•The benefit to this type of surgery is that the doctor no longer has to actually be with the patient meaning that travel costs and hassle for the doctor and patient can be avoided. This makes surgery more convenient and readily available.
•However, there are a definitely difficulties associated with Tele-medicine. Both medical facilities would need surgical robotics systems which would be extremely expensive, especially if the goal was to perform surgery in poorer countries. Access to high speed internet is also an issue.
•In 2001 a physician in New York performed surgery on a patient in France. Though the surgery was successful they encountered setbacks due to the delayed lag time in internet between the countries. But as both robotic and internet technology is improving this will become less and less of an issue. SINGLE-INCISION SURGERY •Single Port Laparoscopy, otherwise known as minimally invasive surgery, is a surgical procedure in which only one, small incision is made. This incision in made in the belly button.
•Though this incision up to three specially designed instruments at a time can be entered and manipulated into the body in order to perform the surgery.
•The obvious benefits to this technology are a faster recovery time due to less damage to the body, less scarring, and less blood loss during surgery.
•This type of surgery takes a considerable amount of training and practice. The surgery itself takes a longer time to perform.
•Technology is currently being researched to combine this type of surgery with robotics to create a precise and minimally invasive surgery. Duties: Providing anesthetics to the patients, monitor "oxygen exchange, circulatory functions, systemic circulation, and vital signs" (8), advising the surgeon of complications, and intervening when necessary. This is a nurse who works under the supervision of the surgeon. The nurse will " perform a limited exam, review... lab data, provide instructions for...surgery and schedule ...[the patient's] arrival time on the day of surgery" (14). Sources/ References
AANS - Neurological Diagnostic Tests. (n.d.). AANS - AANS Home Page. Retrieved February 13, 2013, from http://www.aans.org/Patient%20Information/Conditions%20and%20Treatments/Neurological%20Diagnostic%20Tests.aspx
Birth defects and congenital anomalies - Treatment & Care - Boston Children's Hospital. (n.d.). Boston Children's Hospital. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://www.childrenshospital.org/az/Site479
Congenital anomalies. (2012). World Health Organization. Retrieved February 14, 2013, from www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs370
Debas, H. T. (n.d.). Surgery: A Noble Profession in a Changing World . NCBI. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1422579
Head Injury (Brain Injury). (n.d.). emedicinehealth: experts for everyday emergencies. Retrieved February 14, 2013, from www.emedicinehealth.com/head_injury/article
How to Become a Neurosurgeon: Education and Career Roadmap. (n.d.). Take Free Online Courses. Earn College Credit. Research Schools, Degrees & Careers. Retrieved February 17, 2013, from http://education-portal.com/articles/How_to_Become_a_Neurosurgeon
Hydrocephalus - PubMed Health. (n.d.). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved February 13, 2013, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/
Key Members of the Surgical Team. (n.d.). Medical Reference and Training Manuals. Retrieved February 17, 2013, from http://armymedical.tpub.com/md0915/md09150031
Mullaney, M. (2009, September 29). Long-Distance Doctoring with Virtual Surgery. The Approach — The Approach — Discovery, Innovation, and Imagination at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://approach.rpi.edu/2009/09/29/long-distance-doctoring-with-virtual-surgery/
Neurosurgeon Job Description . (n.d.). Health Care Salary Online . Retrieved February 17, 2013, from http://www.healthcaresalaryonline.com/neurosurgeon-job-description.html
Neurosurgeon Jobs - Neurosurgeon Job Opportunties for Physician and Surgeon Careers. (n.d.). Nursing Jobs, RN Job Search & More - Find Healthcare Jobs on HealthCareerWeb.com. Retrieved February 17, 2013, from http://www.healthcareerweb.com/physician-surgeon/Neurosurgeon_jobs
Polland, J. (2012, August 21). The Future Of Robotic Surgery - Business Insider. Business Insider. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://www.businessinsider.com/the-future-of-robotic-surgery-2012-7
Surgery | Define Surgery at Dictionary.com. (n.d.). Dictionary.com | Find the Meanings and Definitions of Words at Dictionary.com. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/surgery
Surgical Team - procedure, recovery, blood, tube, removal, pain, complications, adults, time, infection, operation, heart, types, risk, children, cancer, Definition, Purpose. (n.d.). Encyclopedia of Surgery: A Guide for Patients and Caregivers. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://www.surgeryencyclopedia.com/St-Wr/Surgical-Team.html
www.patientcenters.com -- Hydrocephalus Center -- When You Need a Neurosurgeon. (n.d.). O'Reilly Media - Technology Books, Tech Conferences, IT Courses, News. Retrieved February 13, 2013, from http://oreilly.com/medical/hydrocephalus/news
A professional registered nurse who basically assists everyone. She can get needed supplies, answer requests, take supplies to be sterilized, and many other tasks. Work Environment Neurosurgeons specialize in ailing of the nervous system. Whenever a malady is found regarding one of these they are the specialist that are called upon to fix the injury. Some examples would be the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. The most common causes to be admitted to a neurosurgeon are strokes, brain traumas, and spinal injuries. Symptoms or accidents that may require a neurosurgeon are loss of cognitive functions, cerebral trauma, new habits, and lapse of memory. The weekly work hours of neurosurgeons can exceed 60 hours, depending on where the neurosurgeon works. A neurosurgeon may work in hospitals or have his own private practice. Work hours are not stable, and include being called during the night to evaluate patients. Neurosurgeons have to stand up for long periods of time, but normally work in clean well lighted environments. Important skills for neurosurgeons to have include: " strong communication and leadership skills, organizational and problem-solving skills, empathy, compassion, patience, dexterity, physical stamina, knowledge of brain and spinal cord anatomy" (6). Advancement Working in teams is becoming more popular among the health care industry, which gives neurosurgeons the opportunity to advance to leadership and authoritative positions. Right now " neurosurgeon jobs have a very promising outlook" (10). Also, neurosurgeons hold one of the most well paying job. CAUSES (DX)/SYMPTOMS: A major symptom of head injury is unconsciousness. Other symptoms include "[p]rolonged confusion, seizures, multiple episodes of vomiting,...difficulty concentrating, increased mood swings,...aggression, and altered sleep habits" (5). To diagnose a patient, the physician needs to find out the details of the accident. The physician also has to take into consideration the medical history of the patient. The physician then examines the patient by testing brain function and studying the bones that surround the skull. For infants, x-rays are taken to make sure there are no skull fractures. CT scans are used for physicians to look at patients' brains in search of bleeding or swelling of the brain. EVOLUTION It's not always easy to see the evolution of traumatic head injuries because some cases have no symptoms at all. However, other cases can be more obvious, where the head injury leaves the patient in a coma. Medical attention should sought even if the head injury is not recent. Traumatic Head Injuries TREATMENT (TX) Treatment for every patient is different because the causes for each head injury are differ. Treatment falls into two categories: closed head injury treatment and penetrating head injury treatment. COMPLICATIONS Complications for head injuries include seizures, vascular injuries, infections, and brain death. Since the brain is vital to our bodies, damage to it can cause many long term and life threatening complications. PROGNOSIS SYMPTOMS Changes in personality, eyes looking downward, sleepiness, muscle spams, restricted movements etc. TEST, HEAD CT SCAN Hydrocephalous:
the build up of liquid inside the skull TREATMENT After being informed by your doctor of the diagnostic. The doctor informs that it should be treated soon and that they will handle it if may be. The usual treatment is a shunt, which is essentially a long straw that goes from your brain to your abdomen where the excess water can be absorbed. SIDE EFFECTS CAUSES About fifty percent of congenital abnormalities have no specific cause. However, some possible causes include socioeconomic conditions, genetics, infections, nutritional conditions of mothers, and environmental factors. DIAGNOSIS (DX)/ SYMPTOMS To diagnose birth defects, genetic screenings are done before the child is born and again when the child is born. Ultrasounds and chronic villus sampling (CVS) are other forms of testing for birth defects. EVOLUTION Congenital abnormalities do not evolve much because they are usually caught at birth or treated after the child is born. Regrettably many birth defects cannot be cured, but doctors try to make sure they don't evolve. TREATMENT Congenital Abnormalities
Birth Defects COMPLICATIONS The major complication with congenital abnormalities is that they are sometimes hard to detect. The symptoms are not always clear and can be mistaken for something else. As in every surgery, there is a risk of complications. For patients with birth defects that can't be cured, complications may later arise with the birth defect itself or with the treatment. PROGNOSIS SURGEON The leader of the team during surgery and in charge of performing the surgery itself. SURGICAL CARE PRACTITIONER The main assistant to the surgeon, " performs comprehensive care, assistance, and pain management during each surgical phase" (14) ANESTHESIOLOGIST The physician trained to administer anesthetics. ANESTHETIST A registered professional nurse who is also trained to administer anesthetics. CARDIOLOGIST Is involved in preparation for the surgery ahead of time. They do a "physical exam, answer...questions, .. and review...medications" (14). They also monitor patients while they are in the hospital and help patients when they are ready to leave. SURGICAL NURSE PERFUSIONIST A perfusionist operates the medical equipment in the surgery room and makes sure all the equipment is working properly. They manage the patient's lungs and blood during the surgery. SCRUB NURSE/ SCRUB ASSISTANT Prepare set up and assist surgeon by handing him any necessary instruments. CIRCULATING NURSE Carina, Jesus, Patience, Kim
HLT 100 Neurosurgeons' education begins with a Bachelor degree. There is no specific Bachelor degree, however majoring in some type of science is wise because it allows for fulfillment of medical school prerequisites. Before receiving a BA, the student must take the MCAT and submit it to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) or the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine (AACOM). After receiving a BA, the next step is to go to medical school. After medical school, the doctor must pass the Medical Licensing Exam. To become a neurosurgeon, one year of internship is necessary, as well as 6-8 years of neurosurgical residency. Most of the time the internship can be completed simultaneously with the residency. Then neurosurgeons need to become state licensed, by "submitting an application, paying the requisite fees and submitting test scores as well as school transcripts" (6). After practicing for some time, the neurosurgeon can apply for Board Certification, which can give one distinction. Team Surgical