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Transcript of Mental Lexicon
Each layer is composed of one or more units. Information flows from input to hidden to output layers. In addition, at every time step t, the hidden-unit layer receives input from the context layer, which stores the hidden-unit activations from time t–1. Focus on Multilingualism: A Study of Trilingual Writing (in some cases, )learners use a term from another language not only because of difficulties but because they find the term matches their communicative intent better or because it is commonly used by other speakers in a bilingual context. From---Second Language Experience Modulates Functional Brain Network for the Native Language Production in Bimodal Bilinguals The functional connectivity between these regions, as well as between other regions that are L1- or L2-specific, is enhanced during L1 production in bimodal bilinguals as compared to their monolingual peers. (speaking and sign language)
Bilingual experience did NOT significantly change the functional connectivity among those ROIs belonging to the same type (Types 1-4) that may support the same cognitive function. Language Networks: Their Structure,Function, and Evolution 3 main features seem to be shared by all language networks:
1. They are sparse, meaning that the average number of links per node is small.
2. They have a small world structure.
3. Language networks are highly heterogeneous: Most elements are connected to one or two others and only a handful of them (the hubs) have a very large number of links. Barabasi 64: (Hubs are) nodes with an extraordinarily large number of links. multilingual learners use similar strategies and focus on the same themes in writing a composition In three languages.
(these multilingual learners) create a hybrid text combining not only the three languages but also mixing languages in other ways, as well (like adding English prefix, suffix, etc. to other languages) Vocabulary in Writing Words About the writing 1. A statement for applying a English graduate program
2. Content: research interest, reasons of applying, course plan
3. Chinese student: English level: intermediate-low4. requirements for writing: no more than 2 pages (2.0 space) Dissertation & Thesis Reckon Barabasi 64: "(Hubs)They dominate the structure of all networks in which they are present, making them look like small worlds."
Barabasi 71: We collect 80% of our information from a 20% data pool Barabasi: Clustering Watts: Decentralized Network: a distribution of control nodes over the network to decentralize it, leaving no traditional vulnerable center. Watts: weak ties are individuals who don’t know each other well or have much in common; Strong ties are densely interlocking ties between individuals Spinuzzi: Actor-network theory's rhizomatic account is that of translation. This account is not developmental...... (actor-network theory) it is still material and transformational...... (In actor-network,) actants are continuously converging, intersecting, and splicing. forms of "be": 16
my, in, the:12
and, I: 11
of, a/an: 9
culture: 5 Watts 149: Hierarchical Networks start out at the level of the whole world. Individuals break it down, or partition it, into a manageable number of smaller, more specific categories My question 1. Is there anything I missed?
2. Can I use the network theory to explain the reasons of semantic changes?
3. Is this helpful to understand the meaning of words (for ESL students)?
4. How can the explanation be applied in classroom teaching?