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First Language Acquisition
Transcript of First Language Acquisition
“A child who does not hear or is not allowed to use language will learn no language”
Cultural transmission; the language is not genetically inherited
L is acquired in a particular language –using environment.
Physically capable of sending and receiving sound signals.
Hearing language sounds is not enough. Acquisition
(basic requirements) The Aquisition Process It is often assumed that the child is, in some sense, being "taught" the language. Imitation of adults' speech. The actual use of sounds and words combinations. Adults' corrections Influences of Linguistic production Factors that influence language acquisition Trying out constructions and testing whether they work or not The speed with which it takes place
It occurs without overt instruction
Innate predisposition First language acquisition remarkable for Language samples (input).
Simplified speech is called caregiver speech (motherese or child-directed speech).
Features of this sort of speech.
Slower tempo with longer pauses. Input Tummy, nana. Simplified words simple sounds such as choo-choo, poo-poo, pee pee, wa-wa. Caregiver speech
Simple sentence structures and a lot of repetition. Coing: early use of speech-like sounds. Cooing and babbling The acquisition schedule Development language almost at the same time Tied to the maturation of the infant’s brain.
Children process what they hear before beginning to talk.
Children increase or decrease “sucking behavior” in respond to speech sounds; they also move their heads.
1 month crying styles, big smiles; distinct vocalizations. Language development is associated with the development of motor skills By 4 months of age Around 9 to 10 months Combinations such as ba-ba-ba ga-ga-ga (babling) First few months of life Vowels: [i] and [u] They create sounds similar to the velar sounds [k] and [g] (cooing and gooing) By 5 months They can hear the difference between the vowels [i] and [a]
and discriminate between syllables like [ba] and [ga] Between 6 and 8 month Recognizable intonation; vowel combination with consonants; variation. Ba-ba-da-da
Nasal sounds become more common. Appear syllable sequeces such as ma-ma-ma; da-da-da 10th and 11th months Use of vocalizations to express emotions and emphasis. The one-word stage Holophrastic The two-word stage Between 12 and 18 months children produce a variety of recognizable single-unit utterances.
Single terms are uttered for everyday objects such as cat, milk, cookie, spoon [pun] dada could mean 'Where is daddy?' 'I want daddy,' etc.
It suggests the child is already extending their use
"The problem of the holophrase [is] that we have no clear evidence that the child intends more than he can express at the one-word stage."
(J. De Villiers and P. De Villiers, Language Acquisition. Harvard Univ. Press, 1979) 18 to 20 months
Beyond 50 words
a child who wants to get milk may say "get milk" as opposed to only being able to say "milk". This shows a marked advancement in language skills.
By age of two-------------- 200 or 300 distinc words Telegraphic speech Large number of utterances classified as “multiple-word speech”
This shoe all wet
'No, mummy--no go sleep!'
The child has developed some sentence-building capacity
A number of grammatical inflections beging to appear; some prepositions are used.
Pronunciation has become closer to the form of adult language. CHILD: Want other one spoon. Daddy
FATHER: you mean, you want the other spoon.
CHILD: Yes, I want other one spoon, please Daddy.
FATHER: Can you say "the other spoon"?
FATHER: Say "other".
FATHER: "Other spoon"
CHILD: Other...spoon. Now give me other one spoon. Developing Morphology By the time a child is two and a half years old, he/she goes beyond telegraphic speech, incorporating some of the inflectional morphemes.
The first to appear is usually the ING - form Critical periods The next morphological development is marked by the plurals The acquisition of the plural marker is accompanied by an issue called Overgeneralization It is when the child overgeneralizes the rule of adding - S - to all the words. Foot - feet Tooth - Teeth man - men woman - women child - children fish - fish The next morphological development is The overgeneralization in the verbs Finally the regular -S marker on third person singular present tense verbs appears.
it occurs first with full verbs and then with auxiliaries Verbs Once the regular form appears, the irregular forms disappear for a while replaced by overgeneralized versions such as: GOED, COMED, ETC For a period, the -ed inflection may be added to everything, producing oddities as: Walkeded, wented, etc First Stage Third Stage Second Stage Between 18 and 26 months Between the 22 and 30 months Between the 24 and 40 months Developing Sintax There have been numerous studies of the development of sintax in children speech Formation of questions Use of negatives Are the structures that seem to be acquired in a regular way by most English-Speaking Children. STAGES OF SYNTAX DEVELOPMENT Forming Questions Forming negatives First Stage Second Stage It involves the simple strategy of adding "No" or "Not at the beginning. More complex expressions can be formed The additional negative forms don't can't appear In this stage there are two procedures Add the WH- form Rise the intonation at the end Where kitty? Doggie?
Where horse go? Sit chair? What book name? You want eat?
Why you smiling? See my doggie? Third Stage The required movement of the auxiliary in English questtions Can I have a piece? Did I caught it?
Will you help me? How that opened?
What did you do? Why kitty can't stand up? I can have Can I have.....? No mitten.
Not a teddy bear.
No fall .
No sit there. I don't want it
You can't dance The third stage sees the incorporation of other auxiliary forms such as didn't and won't. A very late acquisition is the negative form isn't. I didn't caught it
He no talking it
She won't let go
This not ice cream First Language Acquisition is so straightfoward and largely automatic, why is learning a second language so difficult? Hyponymy Developing Semantics It is not possible to determine so precisely the meanings that children attach to the words they use. OVEREXTENTION "middle" - level term Thanks for your attention VIDEO TIME VIDEO
TIME HOW KIDS CAN EVOLVE DURING THE CRITICAL PERIODS?